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McC 8 Chem Ch 2 & 5

Chemistry TermsDefinitions
Fluid A fluid is matter that can flow such as a gas or liquid
Surface Tension The attractive forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid
Temperature The average kinetic energy of the individual particles of a substance
Kinetic Energy Energy of Motion
crystalline solid Solids in which the particles are arranged in a repeating, three-dimensional pattern
amorphous solid These solids consist of large particles in a random arrangement
Density The measure of compactness or how much mass is in a particular volume
Pressure The force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted ----- Pressure = Force / Area
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus
Atomic Mass (Mass Number) the number of protons + the number of neutrons in the nucleus
Isotope atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons
Sublimation process by which a solid changes into a gas without passing through the liquid phase, gaining energy
Ion atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but a different number of electrons
Charles' Law direct relationship between temperature and pressure
Boyle's Law Inverse relationship between volume and pressure
Subatomic Particle particles that make up an atom
Nucleus central region of an atom, contains protons and neutrons, very dense
Electron Cloud area surrounding the nucleus of the atom, contains the electrons located in energy levels
Aristotle 4 elements: Earth, Fire, Water & Air
Democritus atoms cannot be further divided
John Dalton all atoms of the same element are alike, an atom is uniform throughout
JJ Thomson electrons (embedded in a positive sphere)
Ernest Rutherford nucleus (positive charge located here)
Neils Bohr energy levels
Solid Phase of Matter particles vibrate in place, definite volume, definite shape, low energy state
Liquid Phase of Matter Particles are free flowing, no definite shape, definite volume
Gas Phase of Matter Particles move to take up all available space, no definite shape or volume, high energy state
Thermal Energy total energy of all particles in a sample of matter
Specific Heat the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree C
Heat movement of energy from a substance of higher temperature to one at lower temperture
Viscosity resistance to flow of a liquid
Plasma State of Matter Super-heated gas,highest energy,4th state of matter, found in lightning, fluorescent and neon lights, stars
Bose-Einstein State of Matter Extremely cold, very slow moving, 5th state of matter, created in 1995
Deposition process by which gas changes directly to a solid without passing through the liquid phase, losing energy
Vaporization process by which liquid changes to a gas, gaining energy
Condensation process by which a gas changes to a liquid, losing energy
Freezing process by which a liquid changes into a solid, losing energy
Melting process by which a solid changes into a liquid, gaining energy
Created by: MCJH