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Med. Term. Review16


estradiol (ovaries) secreted by follicles of ovary when stimulated by FSH (anterior pituitary gland)
progesterone (ovaries) secreted by corpus luteum along with estradiol when stimulated by LH (anterior pituitary gland)
LH (testes) stimulates interstitial cells of testes to secrete testosterone (an androgen - male sex hormone)
Hypothalamus located below thalamus in brain contains pituitary gland produces 2 hormones of its own that are stored in posterior pituitary gland and stimulated by nerve impulses secretes substances that stimulate secretion from anterior pituitary gland
pituitary gland located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone Anterior and posterior parts
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Anterior pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to grow and stimulates it to secrete thyroid hormones T3 and T4.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Anterior pituitary gland Female: stimulates follicles in ovaries to produce mature ova and secrete hormone estradiol. Male: stimulates the seminiferous tububles of testes to produce spermatozoa.
luteinizing hormone (LH) Anterior pituitary gland Female: stimulates a follicle each month to release a mature ovum. It stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete estradiol and progesterone. Male: stimulates interstitial cells of testes to secrete testosterone.
prolactin Anterior pituitary gland stimulates development of lactiferous lobules (milk glands) in breasts during puberty and production of milk during pregnancy.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Anterior pituitary gland stimulates the cortex of adrenal gland to secrete its hormones (aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens)
growth hormone (GH) Anterior pituitary gland stimulates cell growth and protein synthesis in all body cells. It increases height and weight during puberty.
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Anterior pituitary gland does not have any significant function and is not normally present in adults. Pregnant women-it is secreted and stimulates melanocytes to produce the pigment melanin. It causes skin pigmentation on the face (cholasma) and abdomen (linea negra).
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Posterior pituitary gland moves water from tubules in the nephron of the kidney back into the blood. Decreases urine output and keeps blood volume and pressure at normal levels.
oxytocin Posterior pituitary gland stimulates pregnant uterus to contract during labor and childbirth. Causes uterus to contract after birth to prevent hemorrhaging. Causes breasts to release milk for nursing (let-down reflex) when newborn cries or sucks.
pineal gland located between the 2 lobes of thalamus in brain.
melatonin pineal gland maintains the body's 24 hour wake sleep cycle and regulates the onset and duration of sleep.
thyroid gland located in neck on either side of the trachea connected by the isthmus (bridge).
T3 (triiodothyronine) thyroid gland increases the rate of cellular metabolism
T4 (thyroxine) secreted but most is changed to T3 by the liver
calcitonin regulates amount of calcium in the blood. High level: Calcitonin moves calcium from the blood and deposits it into bones and therefore decreases blood calcium.
pancreas yellow, triangular gland posterior to stomach Produces 3 hormones from a group of cells known as the islets of Langerhans.
glucagon pancreas secreted by alpha cells of pancreas. When glucose level is low, glucagon breaks down glycogen (stored in liver and skeletal muscle) to release glucose into the blood.
insulin pancreas decreases blood glucose. secreted by beta cells. Insulin transports glucose to a body cell, binds to an insulin receptor on a cell membrane, and transports glucose into cell so that it can be metabolized to produce energy.
somatostatin pancreas secreted by delta cells. Prevents glucagon and insulin from being secreted. Prevents growth hormone (anterior pituitary gland) from being secreted.
parathyroid glands located on posterior surface of thyroid gland
parathyroid hormone regulates amount of calcium in the blood. Low level: It moves calcium from bones into blood and therefore increases blood calcium.
thymus gland posterior to sternum, within the mediastinum of thorax.
thymosin thymus gland causes immature T lymphocytes in the thymus to develop and mature
adrenal glands at superior ends of each kidney
aldosterone adrenal cortex (outer layer) most abundant and biologically active of mineral corticoid hormones. Secreted when BP is low. Increases blood sodium.
cortisol adrenal cortex most abundant and biologically active of glucocorticoid hormones. Breaks down stored glycogen and increases amount of glucose in the blood. Decreases formation of proteins and new tissue. (strong antinflammatory effect)
androgens adrenal cortex male sex hormones In the blood, some androgens are changed to estrogens (female sex hormones).
epinephrine adrenal medulla (inner layer) fight or flight! secreted in times of anxiety, fear, or anger. Increases blood glucose.
norepinephrine adrenal medulla controls involuntary processes such as the heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure when the body is active or exercising.
Created by: 100001033451881