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Med. Term. Review 8

Cell reproduction and cell anatomy

meiosis process by which a spermatocyte reduces the # of chromosomes in its nucleus to 23 or half the normal # to create gametes.
mitosis process by which most body cells reproduce. 46 chromosomes duplicate, split, and create 2 identical cells each with 46 chromosomes.
golgi apparatus curved stacked membranes that process and store proteins until they are released by the cell (makes lysosomes)
lysosomes small sacs that contain powerful digestive enzymes to destroy bacterium or virus that invades the cell
endoplasmic reticulum network of channels in cytoplasm that transports materials. Site of protein, fat, and glycogen.
cytoplasm gel-like substance that fills the cell
organelles dissolved substances and different structures in cytoplasm
messenger RNA duplicates the information contained in a gene and carries it to the ribosome where it is used to assemble amino acids to make a protein molecule
mitochondria capsule-shaped structures with sectioned chambers that produce and store ATP, a high energy molecule obtained from the metabolism of glucose.
What does glucose do in the cell? Converts ATP to ADP to release energy for cellular activities.
nucleus large, round, centralized structure that is surrounded by a nuclear membrane. (controls all activities that occur within the cell)
nucleolus round, central region within the nucleus. Produces RNA & ribosomes
ribosomes granular structures in the cytoplasm and on the endoplasmic reticulum. Contains RNA and proteins and are the site where proteins are produced.
chromosomes paired structures within the nucleus. Each cell nucleus contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, total of 46 chromosomes. (1 from mother, 1 from father in each pair) -- made up of one long DNA molecule.
gene one segment of a DNA molecule that contains enough amino acids pairs to provide the info. to provide one protein molecule.
Created by: 100001033451881