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History Test on Central and South America

South America is a continent of great ___ contrast
South America has almost every type of ___ landform
The world's largest tropical rainforest is located in ____ _____ South America
The largest river in the world is ___ The Amazon River
Angel Fall's is found in the country of ___ Venezuela
One of the world's driest regions. (Desert... hint hint wink wink) Atacama Desert
This desert recieves less than half an inch of rain a year. Atacama Desert
This landform goes on for about 600 miles down the Andean Coast Atacama Desert
Define isthmus A narrow stripof land that connects two larger landmasses.
Give an example of an isthmus The Isthmus of Panama.
The Andes Mountains run like a ___ down the western coast of South America Spine.
The ____ _________ are the world's longest mountain range, stretching about ____ miles from north to South Andes Mountains, 4500
The high altitudes of the Andes Mountains affect the following: 1. Rainfall 2. Wind Patterns 3. Plant Life
Define Timberline The line above which trees cannot grow.
At higher altitudes ___ becomes more scarce Oxygen.
The only higher mountains than the Andes are the ______ of _______ Himalaya, Asia
Decreased oxygen makes ____ and ____ more difficult. movement, activity
A lack of ___ is a challenge to human life in the Andes. Water.
early people in the Andes learned to build _______ systems to recieve more water Irrigation.
Early people in the Andes found effective ways of fertilizing soil and ways to farm crops such as... ___ ___ ___ Maize, Peppers, Potatoes.
Travel in the Andes was and is very difficult. People had to build ___ bridges like the modern day ___ bridges to get across certain areas. They also have to ___ steep rock walls. Rope, suspension, climb.
The Amazon River is in ___ and ___ Brazil, Peru
The Amazon drains ________ square miles of land 3,000,000
The Amazon River carries ___ of the world's water 1/5
The thick ___ forests of the Amazon Region prevented land travel until highways were built in the 19_'s and 19_'s 60, 70
Rainforests cover nearly ___ of South Amercan land. 1/3
The rainforests are homes for many interesting ______s and provede valuble products such as ___ Animal, timber.
Recently, farmers and loggers have been cutting down the ___ ______ and this has been concerning many people around the world. Rain Forest
The Amazon Rain Forest gives us lots of the ___we need. oxygen.
Define pampas. Grasslands.
Pampas are located in what regions of South America? Central and Southern areas.
The pampas in South America look a lot like the Great Plains of the ____ ____(Country) United States.
The pampas are used for raising ____ and ____ Cattle, horses.
Define gauchos Cowhands.
The equator runs through what area of South America? The northern region.
Because of where the equator runs through South America, South America's climate would be described as ____ tropical or subtropical.
Since most of South America is south of the equater, the are ____ to what our seasons are. reversed.
The seasons in South America: December to March: Summer June to September: Winter.
In the Southern Hemisphere winds usually blow ___ to ___ West to East.
The winds also move ___ North
When the wind comes of the oceans, they tend to drop large amounts of rain-as much as __ in. a year 80
Ocean Currents affect climate in South America, and the most famous current in South America in called __ ____ El Nino.
El Nino carries warm water north along much of the _____ coast and in some years it moves farther north and effects the ____ all over the world. West, climate.
In the 19__'s, El nino moved north and affected the climate all over the world. 90.
There is a variety of _____ in South America climates
The Amazon Region is ____ and ____ wet, hot
The Andes Region is ___ and___ cold, dry
Northern Chile has some of the ____ places in the world driest
One region in Chile has not had rain in __ yrs. 14
Olaudah Equiano is... A man who wrote an autobiography about living in the Middle Passage, which he did. Olaudah is (obviously) a former slave.
The ____ and ____ were eager for wealth from their American colonies, and realized that their plantations and mines need work , so they began to.............(next ?) Spanish, Portuguese
The Spanish and Portuguese enslaved who? American Indians.
Who were the first Europeans to enslave Indians? The Portuguese.
Who raided the Tupinamba indians and put the people to work on suar plantations along the coast of Brazil? Portuguese
In the Caribbean islands, the Spanish enslaved the indians who greeted Columbus on his first voyage, among these were the ___ Indians Arawak
Many ____ people treated their slaves very badly The Spanish
A priest named ___________ __ ___ _______ protested strongly against the harsh treatment Bartolomé de las Casas
The King of Spain agreed with Bartolome de las Casas that his treatment towards the slaves was___ and abolished it. harsh
At the same time that slavery was abolished in the Carribbean islands, what indians died away with new-found diseases? Arawak Indians
Because the Arawak Indians were dying off, the Europeans had to look elsewhere for new ___ WORKERS! not slaves! (BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS!)
Who profited from Africans in the late 1400s? Portuguese.
In 1530, the Portuguses began to capture ___ and sent them off to Brazil Africans.
Over the 70 years (after 1530) the Portuguese sent _______ of enslaved Africans to the Americas thousands.
by the mid 1500s, the trade in enslaved Africans had risen to 27,000 a year, and in the following century the number rose to ______ a year. 70,000
The ____, _____,_____,and ______ began to bring captive Africans into their colonies as well. Netherlands, England, Denmark, Spain, France.
By the mid 1800s, more than _ million Africans had been shipped to the Americas. 10
About 38% went to ____, 27% went to _____, and 6% to ______ while the rest went to other colonies. Brazil, the Carribbean islands, the 13 colonies.
What was the Middle Passage? The voyage from Africa to the Americas,which was a very painful one.
What made the Middle Pasage so unbearable? 1. The ceiling was so low that you couldn't stand up straight. 2. You were served spoiled food and only had filthy water as a water option. This voyage was so horrible that many Africans jumped overboard.
How long did the Middle Passage last? 3 months.
When Africans reached the shore, what happend then? They were quickly sold and put to work in their new colony.
Who was the man who wrote an autobiography about the Middle Passage as a former slave? Olaudah Equiano.
How old was Olaudah Equiano when he was kidnapped and set on a Virginia Plantation to work? 11.
Why did plantation owners depend on their slaves for their profits? THEY DID ALL THE WORK!
Enslaved workers _____ed forests for planting, and they ______ed the soil so they could actually _____ on that land. clear, prepar, plant
On a sugar plantatioin at harvest time, slaves cut ______ ____ all day in the hot sun. sugar cane
What is the process during the harvest season for sugar cane? 1. Collect some sugar cane 2. carried to plantation mills where they were then crushed. 3. The juice was boiled to produce sugar crystals. The workers filled barrel after barrel with sugar.
Sugar became a very ____overseas item. valuable.
Some sugar was shipped across the Atlantic, and all the way to ____!!! Europe.
Later, sugar was also sent to ___ _____ where it was converted into __ New England, rum.
After converted to rum in New England, the ____was sent to Africa where they exchanged for more enslaved Africans for colonial plantations. The trade between the 3 countires is called.... Trangular Trade.
In the British colonies, they produced the following:(hint: the owners made large profits from the crops raised by enslaved Africans.) indigo, tobacco, rice, cotton.
With the profits that the Europeans got from the crops raised by the enslaved Africans, they often bought more _______ and expanded the size of their plantations, creating both wealth and sorrow in the Americas. captives.
Created by: brigid_oshea