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SIE- Gen Science II

Test Info

inorganic compounds do not contain carbon, were never alive, will not burn (water, metal, minerals)
organic compounds contain carbon, are or once were living , will burn(gasoline, plastics, synthetic materials, animals)
hydrophilic water loving
What is the atomic weight of oxygen? 8
What is the most common vehicle in cosmetic products? water
buffering agent adjust the pH of a product to make it more acceptiable to the skin
Where do non certified colors come from? natural plant or animal extracts, mineral pigment, or synthetics.
chelating agent a chemical that is added to cosmetics to improve the efficiency of the preservative; they break down the cell walls of bacteria and other microorganisms so that the preservative is more easily absorbed by the microorganism
emollients lubricate the skin; work as vehicles to help spread other performance ingredients; give cosmetics a soft, smooth feeling
distillation heating to remove one chemical from another
performance agents/ingredients cause skin's physical appearance to change
cetyl alcohols used as an emollient, and emulsifier, an opacifying agent, and a spreading agent
surfactant causes the cosmetic to be able to slip across or onto the skin
biochemistry study of chemical reactions that happen in the body
organic chemistry study of objects that contain carbon
amino acid a protein that helps break down simple sugars, fats, and parts of proteins
peptide bond bond between two or more amino acid groups
enzymes a proteolytic protein that is involved as a catalyst in chemical reactions,used to break down substances; often end in -ate
molecule two or more atoms joined together
element a chemical in its simplest form
matter anything that takes up space and has substance
atom smallest measurable unit of an element
proton very small positively charged particle within atom's nucleus
neutron very small particles with no charge
electron negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom
ionic bond the bond of two ions joining to form a molecule
covalent bond the bond between atoms sharing electrons
solvent liquid part of the solution
solute solid part of the solution
disaccharide two saccharides bonded together
lipophilic fat loving
nucleus center of the atom
catalyst a substance that helps to cause a reaction, or speed up a reaction, without its atoms becoming a direct part of the reactions's product
chemical reaction a reaction between two elements or two compounds that results in chemical changes
ion charged atoms; when atoms "steal" or "give away" electrons to each other
saccharides can refer to any carbohydrate group
polysaccharides many saccharides bonded together
polymer chains of carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonded together; spreading agents that help many ingredienst adhere to the skin surface or penetrate performance ingredients
suspension a liquid solution in which the internal and external phases do not stay mixed for any length of time
solution a mixture of chemicals
pH the measurement of positively charged hydrogen ions in a substance
functional ingredients help the product to spread across skin, keep the product mixed and uniform in texture, adjust the pH of a product, and keep the product fresh
deionizing this process neutralizes ions that can cross-react with other ingredients or make the product unstable
silicones a protective emollient that leaves a protective film on the surface of the skin
fatty acids derived from plant or animal sources; help to give a soft, firm texture to lotions and creams
fatty alcohols fatty acids that have been exposed to hydrogen; used as vehicles and emollients in skin-care products and cosmetics; heavier
fatty esters fatty substances used as vehicles and emollients; organic acid combines with alcohol; used to smooth surface of skin and hair; lighter
rancid discoloration and/or odor due to oxidation
What are the four basic types of surfactants? anionic, nonionic, cationic, and amphoteric
emulsifiers chemicals that keep water and oil solutions well mixed
preservatives/antimicrobials chemical agents that inhibit the growth of microorganisms in creams or cosmetic products
antioxidants chemicals that are added to cosmetic formulas to prevent oxidation
microecapsulation process of using barrier and intercellular compatible materials like lipids to form special micro-shells to protect and better penetrate ingredients
phospholipids naturally moisturizing lipids found within the skin
liposomes hollow spheres made of phospholipids that are used to transport other agents
loaded liposomes liposome carrying ingredient, ingredient will penetrate the skin, liposome will dissolve releasing ingredients into the intercellular cement
microsponge releases an active ingredient once inside the skin or on the skin's surface
nanosphere releases an active ingredient once inside the skin
oxidation the process by which oxygen is esposed to certain ingredients, which results in a breakdown of the ingredient
gellant added to product to give it a gel-like consistancy
lakes certified colors regulated by the FDA
micelles overemulsified ingredient
active agents chemicals that cause physical changes in the skin's appearance
active ingredients ingredients in drug products that cause a change in the function of the human body
vehicles ingredients used as spreading agents
protectants chemicals that stop water evaporation
petrolatum (petroleum jelly) used as a vehicle, protectant, and lubricant; prevents urine and soggy diapers from irritating the baby's sensitive skin
biologically inert will not react with the chemicals in the human body
detergents surfactants that are used for cleansing
globules oil droplets in an o/w emulsion
homogenizers high-speed mixers used to emulsify lotions and creams
emulsions an unstable mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with aid of an emulsifier
miscible capable of being mixed
immiscible incapable of being mixed
oil-in-water mostly water; lighter and easier to spread, used in moisturizers
water-in-oil mostly oil; heavier, used in heavy cold creams
anionic surfactants are stron cleansers used in household products
cationic surfactants used in cosmetics and hair shampoos
amphoteric surfactants used in facial lotions and creams
nonionic surfactants used in heavier creams such as hand cream
non-certified colors derived from plant or animal extracts, mineral pigments, and sometimes synthetic colors; intended to be used around the eyes
Created by: Lizziewiz