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chapter 3-conscious

QuestionAnswer
Constancies reflect the effect of Learning
Consciousness is... it cannot be defined.
Which type of cortical wave has the lowest intensity? Beta
Which type of cortical wave has the lowest frequency? Delta
The thing that distinguishes level 2 sleep is Sleep spindles.
Which of the following is a characteristic of REM sleep? The body is paralyzed.
What element of consciousness will not be explored by a behaviorist? The content of dreams
Hypnosis is associated with what type of cortical activity? Alpha
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of REM sleep? Voluntary muscles tense and become more active.
Under the influence of alcohol, angered people are ________ likely to be aggressive than they would otherwise be and restaurant patrons are ________ likely to tip generously than they otherwise would. more; more
The ability to simultaneously monitor the shape as well as the color of an object best illustrates the value of dual processing.
Research on sleep patterns indicates that sleep patterns may be genetically influenced.
To cure his insomnia, Mr. Ming takes a sleeping pill just before bedtime. Research suggests that this practice may actually make Mr. Ming's insomnia worse when it is discontinued.
Advocates of the social influence theory of hypnosis are likely to argue that hypnotized people are simply enacting the role of “good hypnotic subjects.”
By decreasing REM sleep, alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory. This disruptions occurs because REM sleep facilitates the process of consolidation.
Human body temperatures typically rise with the approach of morning and fall with the approach of night.
Soon after taking a psychoactive drug, Zachary experienced a diminished appetite, an increased pulse rate, dilated pupils, and feelings of self-confidence and euphoria. Zachary most likely experienced the effects of cocaine.
The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that hypnotized people can endure pain without experiencing emotional distress.
During the course of a full night’s sleep, people are most likely to spend more time in REM sleep than in Stage 4 sleep.
Near-death experiences are often accompanied by visions of bright lights.
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.
Feli has been asleep for three hours. As he continues to sleep, we can expect that Stage 4 sleep will diminish and that REM sleep will increase in duration.
The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of Stage 1 sleep.
People become unresponsive to hypnosis if told that those who are highly gullible are easily hypnotized. This fact is most consistent with the theory that hypnosis involves conscious role-playing.
Regular users of ________ may achieve a high with smaller amounts of the drug than occasional users. marijuana
An altered state of consciousness in which people experience fantastic images and often feel separated from their bodies is most closely associated with the use of LSD
The ability to understand the words of this question requires: Dual (parallel) processing and selective attention.
We have an intuitive sense about what psychoactive drugs will do for us. This expectation may: Frame our responses to those drugs and people who use them.
Study followed by sleep tends to: Enhance the effect of studying.
_____ sleep has been linked to consolidation, which is part of the process of _____. REM, memory storage.
Classical conditioning: Does not require conscious awareness.
What type of learning is most likely to involve dual processing? Observational learning.
Psychoactive drugs have little impact on: Transduction.
Perceptual organization is the result of: Automatic, non-conscious processing of sensory information.
Which of the following indicates that circadian rhythms are influenced by genetics? Most mammalian species maintain a more or less constant 24 hour rhythm.
Delta waves are more _____ than alpha waves. Intense.
Hypnosis is most likely to produce changes in neural activity within the: Central nervous system.
Identical twins are more likely than fraternal twins to be similar with respect to their ability to be hypnotized. This suggests that this trait is: heritable.
Which of the following would be an operational definition of tolerance? Needing to take more of a drug to produce the same effect.
You find that the amount of time people who use psychoactive drugs spend sleeping is much more variable than the amount of time that people who do not use these agents spend sleeping. In other words, the: Standard deviation of the sleep time for users is larger than that of non-users.
The effects of stimulants on Attention Deficit Disorder would be most interesting to a Psychiatrist.
Why people dream would be most interesting to Functionalists.
The nucleus accumbens is the center of a(n) ________ circuit that is active in both hunger for food and pleasurable stimulation from addictive drugs. Dopamine.
REM sleep is characterized by ________ frequency and ________ amplitude brain waves. high; low.
People are particularly responsive to hypnosis if they strongly expect that they can be hypnotized.
Symptoms of drug withdrawal are likely to be most severe among those with high levels of drug tolerance.
Unconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to occur simultaneously on several tracks.
Which sleep disorder is more likely to be experienced by children than by adults? night terrors.
After sleeping for about an hour and a half, José enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is likely to have very relaxed muscles.
Sleep deprivation has been shown to diminish immunity to disease.
Which of the following is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia? Relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime.
One plausible theory suggests that hypnosis relieves pain by distracting attention
Sleep deprivation ________ the production of body fat by ________ levels of the stress hormone cortisol. stimulates; increasing
Chronic sleep debt is most likely to promote obesity.
Exposure to bright light causes the pineal gland to decrease the production of melatonin.
Research studies of the content of dreams indicate that people are more likely to dream of failure than of success.
Prolonged and excessive drinking can shrink the brain most intensely in ________ who have ________ of a stomach enzyme that digests alcohol. women; less.
Smokers with ________ levels of nicotine tolerance are likely to suffer the most severe withdrawal symptoms when they discontinue smoking. high.
According to Freud, the manifest content of a dream refers to the remembered storyline of a dream.
Research on sleep patterns indicates that sleep patterns may be genetically influenced.
According to the dual processing model, language operates in two modes: Conscious and deliberate versus unconscious and automatic.
The effect of sleep on memory is probably the result of enhanced: Consolidation.
Operant conditioning, according to B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists, Does not require conscious awareness.
Which type of learning is most likely to involve selective attention? Observational learning.
Visual capture is closely related to: Selective attention.
Dual processing enables us to take advantage of: Binocular cues to distance.
The ability to process two or more things at once is made possible by: Parallel processing.
What is the difference between hallucination and perception? Hallucinations are seen by one person, perceptions by many.
Some people are more sensitive to the effects of psychoactive drugs than others. One explanation for this relates to: Genetics.
DNA is probably not related to: The manifest and latent content of dreams.
A researcher wants to learn the effects of barbiturates on sleep. To determine this she selects a group of people who use the drugs, and another group that do not. Those who she could study are the: Population.
The concept of consciousness would be most interesting to a structuralist.
Which psychological perspective would be most interested in the manifest and latent content of dreams? psychodynamic.
The distinctive brain waves that accompany various stages of sleep are detected by an electroencephalograph.
In the video 'Blindsight', research participants with normal vision engage in an experimental simulation of blindsight using radar signals.
Suppose that peer influences simultaneously push young adults toward excessive drinking and risky sex. In explaining the positive correlation between drinking and risky sexual activity, peer influence could best be described as an underlying third variable.
The claim that hypnotic phenomena occur outside our normal awareness is associated with the theory that hypnosis involves dissociation.
People can be hypnotically induced to report little pain from placing their arms in an ice bath.
Since 1960, psychology has regained an interest in consciousness as psychologists of all persuasions affirmed the importance of cognition.
When Mark first tried to quit smoking, he experienced anxiety, irritability, and difficulty sleeping. Mark was experiencing withdrawal
Amphetamines are to ________ as barbiturates are to ________. stimulants; depressants
Forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.
Research on susceptibility to hypnosis indicates that people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to become absorbed in the imaginary events of a novel or a movie.
Bats need a lot of sleep because their high waking metabolism produces ________ that are toxic to neurons. free radicals.
The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every 90 minutes.
Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with ________ sleep. stage 1.
Animals with the ________ need to graze and the ________ ability to hide from danger tend to sleep less. most; least.
Brain damage left one woman unable to recognize the width of a block even though she could grasp it with just the right finger-thumb distance. This unusual case illustrates the importance of our normal capacity for dual processing.
About three hours after he falls asleep, Bobby often sits up in bed screaming incoherently. His mother tries to awaken him, but with no success. The next morning, he remembers nothing. It appears that Bobby suffers from night terrors.
Cindi prefers to take exams in the late afternoon rather than during the morning, because her energy level and ability to concentrate are better at that time. Her experience most likely reflects the influence of the circadian rhythm.
Selective attention, inattention, and confirmation bias may reflect: Overconfidence, belief perseverance and functional fixedness.
Behaviorists would not be interested in studying: dreaming.
Inattentional blindness is a reflection of the power of: selective attention.
What is the primary difference between behaviorism and cognitive neuroscience? one studies mind, the other ignores it.
Hallucinogens have little impact on: sensation.
Hypnosis has been used by dentists to successfully: raise the absolute threshold for pain.
Virtually all mammals sleep, which suggests that: Natural selection favored those who occasionally were not conscious.
An evolutionary psychologist interested in natural selection might be interested in: Why most mammals REM while they sleep.
Worldwide, the most commonly used psychoactive drugs are caffeine and alcohol.
In looking at hypnosis, someone with a psychodynamic perspective would look for: unconscious motives.
The greatest danger of viewing drug addiction as a disease is that this may lead drug addicts to feel powerless to overcome the addiction.
It has been found that night terrors typically occur during Stage 4 sleep.
Alcohol consumption tends to decrease self-awareness and decrease impulse control.
Orne and Evans discovered that unhypnotized subjects performed the same dangerous acts as hypnotized subjects. This finding is most consistent with the theory that hypnosis involves conscious role-playing.
One of the dangers of using Ecstasy at all-night dances is dehydration.
In one study, both hypnotized and unhypnotized subjects were told to throw acid in a researcher's face. In this experiment, hypnotized people behaved in the same fashion as unhypnotized individuals.
Traffic accident rates have been found to ________ after the spring change to daylight savings time and to ________ after the fall change back to standard time. increase; decrease.
Josef tells his therapist that he has a dream in which he kills a tiger. The therapist explains that the dream reflects Josef's unresolved feelings of hostility toward his father. the therapist is revealing the possible ________ content of Josef's dream. latent.
Caged rats respond to foot shocks with unusually high levels of aggression after ingesting cocaine.
Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that many people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help.
Felix was so preoccupied with his girlfriend's good looks that he failed to perceive any of her less admirable characteristics. This best illustrates the dangers of selective attention.
Jana developed a habit of drinking several beers after work each day. Her diminishing feeling of intoxication from the drinks is indicative of tolerance.
Mark's abuse of alcohol and other addictive drugs is influenced by genetic factors, by the ready availability of drugs in Mark's neighborhood, and by Mark's failure to accurately assess the risks associated with drug usage. a biopsychosocial approach.
Because REM sleep occurs with increasing frequency as the night progresses, it might be said to occur on a _____ schedule. variable interval.
Selective attention is responsible for: Figure-ground and grouping phenomenon.
It appears that one's ability to become physically dependent on a psychoactive drug is influenced by: The genome and the environment.
Some subjects receive a depressant before going to sleep, other receive a placebo. Researchers then study how long it takes the subjects to fall asleep. In this study the dependent variable is: How long it takes to subjects to fall asleep.
The more a person uses stimulants, the more likely they are to experience insomnia. This indicates that: There is a correlation between stimulant use and insomnia.
The “drug reward” system in the brain is found primarily in the _______ system. limbic.
Caffeine is an ________ to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine because it ________ the acetylcholine's effect. agonist; enhances
Sleep spindles are characteristic of ________ sleep. Stage 2.
Night terrors typically occur within three hours of falling asleep.
At 3 o’clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues, we can expect an increasing occurrence of REM sleep.
Shane, a straight-A student, remembers dreaming that he failed an important chemistry test. According to Freud, Shane's account represents the ________ content of his dream. manifest
Fantastic images that are not part of our regular sleep dreams occur during ________ sleep. stage 1
An altered state of consciousness similar to that of a near-death experience is most likely to result from the use of cocaine
Twenty-eight-year-old Theodore has an irrational fear of dogs. His therapist hypnotizes him and asks him to mentally relive his earliest childhood experience with a dog. The therapist is making use of age regression
Research indicates that memories retrieved during hypnosis are often a combination of fact and fiction.
REM sleep is inhibited by alcohol and inhibited by sleeping pills.
The emotional tone of our dreams is especially likely to be influenced by activation of the ________ during REM sleep. limbic system
The British government classifies the highly addictive crystallized form of ________ as one of the most dangerous of drugs. methamphetamine
As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark, and handsome gentleman when suddenly the music shifted to loud rock and the man disappeared. According to Freud, Inge's account represents the ________ content of her dream. manifest
One reason that dreams may make little sense is that the things we use to predict and to understand what happens in them (heuristics, algorithms and biases): May not apply because dreams reflect random neural activity (static).
The effect of sleep on memory is probably mediated by: The hippocampus.
Lack of sleep has been shown to: Reduce the ability to learn.
Dual processing enables us to take advantage of: retinal disparity
Identical twins are more likely than fraternal twins to be similar with respect to their ability to be hypnotized. This suggests that this trait is: heritable
As a person gradually shifts from Stage 1 to Stage 4 sleep, brain waves become progressively ________ in frequency and ________ in amplitude. lower; higher
Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commercial bus driver? narcolepsy
Jordanna has decided to go to bed early. Although her eyes are closed and she's very relaxed, she has not yet fallen asleep. An electroencephalograph is most likely to indicate the presence of alpha waves.
Methamphetamine enhances energy and mood by triggering the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine
Which specialty area would be most interested in identifying the cortical activation patterns associated with a person's perception of different objects? cognitive neuroscience
Amphetamines ________ appetite and ________ self-confidence. decrease; increase
To relieve her job-related stress, Jessica has several cocktails every night. Jessica's drinking is an indication of psychological dependence.
At 1:00 A.M., Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of his brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of delta waves.
Although we may be unaware of our gender prejudices, they often influence the way we consciously perceive males and females. This best illustrates dual processing.
The release of stored serotonin and the eventual damage of serotonin-producing neurons is most closely associated with the long-term use of Ecstasy
The claim that hypnotic phenomena are regulated by normal conscious processes is associated with the theory that hypnosis reflects the power of social influence.
Sleeping after learning something may enhance the ability to remember what you learned by blocking: Proactive interference.
Inattentional blindness suggests that perception is dictated by: Conscious attention to other things.
Which of the following indicates that circadian rhythms are influenced by the environment? People change their cycles in response to changes in when daylight begins.
A cognitive neuroscientist might be interested in the effects of: Delta waves on brain function.
Psychedelic drugs are also called hallucinogens.
Hans Kosterlitz found that endorphin receptor sites are identical to neural receptor sites for heroin.
the dream might be a representation of the girlfriend's efforts to avoid sexual intimacy. According to Freud, the therapist was attempting to reveal the ________ of Greg's dream. latent content.
The circadian rhythm is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
U.S. sixth graders ________ their friends' use of marijuana, and university students ________ their fellow students' enthusiasm for alcohol. overestimate; overestimate.
A rewarding consequence of cigarette smoking is that it reduces sensitivity to pain.
The activation-synthesis theory best helps to explain why people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep.
Research participants picked one of two photographed faces as more attractive. When researchers cleverly switched the photos, participants readily explained why they preferred the face they had actually rejected. Their behavior illustrated choice blindness.
By decreasing REM sleep, alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory. This disruptions occurs because REM sleep facilitates the process of consolidation.
Ohio State University pedestrians were more likely to cross streets unsafely if they were talking on a cellphone. This best illustrates the impact of selective attention.
A brief 15- to 30-minute rush of euphoria followed by a crash of agitated depression is most closely associated with the use of cocaine.
According to Freud, the manifest content of a dream refers to the remembered story line of a dream.
François was dismayed to discover that some of his football teammates were using drugs to enhance their footwork and endurance on the playing field. Which of the following drugs were the players most likely using? amphetamines
Insight and intuition may result from the activities of: the right side of the brain.
We tend to remember dreams that occur ______, perhaps because of a lack of: As we awaken, retroactive interference.
Stimulant drugs like amphetamines, that tend to increase attention and alertness, are likely to influence the: reticular formation.
Which of the following would be an example of applied research? Conducting a study to determine if hypnosis can be used to limit withdrawal symptoms in opiate abusers.
Getting only half of a normal night of sleep is likely to cut most deeply into your ________ sleep time. REM
Sexually aroused women who have been drinking alcohol become ________ disposed to casual sex. Sexually aroused men who have been drinking become ________ disposed to sexual aggression. more; more.
According to Freud, the latent content of a dream refers to its underlying but censored meaning.
After a stressful day at the office, Arthur has five or six drinks at a local bar before going home for dinner. Research suggests that Arthur's heavy drinking will have the most adverse effect on his ability to remember the next day the names of the people he talked to and what he said while drinking.
The reckless aggressive behavior that may follow alcohol consumption best illustrates that alcohol may act as a(n) disinhibitor.
Hypnosis has been used by dentists to successfully: close the pain gate.
The best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by the fact that most mammals experience REM rebound.
Researchers are most likely to question the value of hypnosis for enhancing memory.
Behaviorism encouraged psychologists to ignore the study of consciousness.
When Celeste was unable to obtain her regular supply of heroin, she began to develop pain and an intense craving for the drug. Celeste was experiencing symptoms of withdrawal.
Understanding hypnosis in terms of focused attention, distinctive brain activity, and the presence of an authoritative presence in a legitimate context, requires an integrated ________ approach. biopsychosocial.
In contrast to alcohol, marijuana amplifies sensitivity to sounds.
Which of the following is a common symptom of nicotine withdrawal? anxiety.
Brain regions that buzz with activity as people learn to perform a visual-discrimination task are especially likely to buzz again later as they experience REM sleep.
Hypnotized people who have been age regressed are no more genuinely childlike than unhypnotized people who pretend to act in a childlike behavior. This fact most clearly supports social influence theory.
While Bev was hypnotized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat wellbalanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of posthypnotic suggestion.
Of the following, which may enhance memory? Sleep, hypnosis and psychoactive drugs.
When the brain is in level 4 sleep, _____ waves are observed in the _____. Delta waves, cortex and hippocampus.
Why people dream would be most interesting to Functionalists.
African-American teens have ________ rates of smoking and ________ rates of cocaine use than other U.S. teens. lower; lower
Brain regions that are active as rats learn to navigate a maze show similar activity patterns again as the rats later experience REM sleep.
During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid suddenly lapsed into a state of REM sleep. Mr. Reid apparently suffers from narcolepsy.
The claim that hypnotic phenomena occur outside our normal awareness is associated with the theory that hypnosis involves dissociation.
Shown the hollow face illusion, people will mistakenly perceive the inside of a mask as a protruding face. Yet, they will accurately reach into the inverted mask to flick off a buglike target stuck on the face. This best illustrates the capacity for dual processing.
The circadian rhythm is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Studies of marijuana's effects indicate that regular users may achieve a high with less of the drug than occasional users.
Drug tolerance refers to the reduced effect of a drug resulting from its regular usage.
Research indicates that the percentage of total sleep spent in REM sleep is higher in ________ than in ________. infants; adults.
As oxygen deprivation just prior to death turns off the brain's inhibitory cells, neural activity increases in the visual cortex.
A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates selective attention.
Bed-wetting is most likely to occur at the end of ________ sleep. slow-wave.
Mr. Dayton occasionally stops breathing while sleeping. He wakes up to snort air for a few seconds before falling back to sleep. Mrs. Dayton complains that her husband snores. Clearly, Mr. Dayton suffers from sleep apnea.
If highly hypnotizable people are no better than others at simultaneously reading a book and listening to music, this would most clearly challenge the dissociation theory.
Compared to unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively slow and especially effective for solving problems.
Mr. Oates always sleeps restlessly, snorting and gasping throughout the night. It is most likely that Mr. Oates suffers from sleep apnea.
When cocaine is injected or smoked, it produces a rush of euphoria that lasts 15 to 30 minutes. But the stimulant drug ________ can trigger 8 hours or so of heightened energy and euphoria. methamphetamine
Which of the following suggested treatments for insomnia is a reflection of the power of classical conditioning? sleep on a regular schedule.
A cognitive neuroscientist is probably not going to be excited about exploring which biological system? endocrine.
Dreaming is likely to be associated with activity in which lobe of the cortex? occipital.
Which of the following would be an example of basic research? Exploring the effects of THC on social behavior to learn if there is an effect.
When cocaine is snorted, free-based, or injected, it produces a rush of euphoria by blocking the reuptake of dopamine.
Why people dream would be most interesting to Functionalists.
The use of barbiturates ________ anxiety and ________ nervous system activity. decreases; decreases.
Christy failed to notice that she received her ice cream in a sugar cone rather than a waffle cone as she had requested. She later indicated to another customer that she preferred sugar cones over waffle cones. Christy's behavior most clearly illustrates choice blindness.
An air pump that keeps the sleeper's airway open and breathing regular is often prescribed for serious cases of narcolepsy.
Psychoactive drugs, including alcohol and others that influence stress, tend to: disrupt memory.
Some people take barbiturates to help them sleep. Some of those people are compared with those who do not use those drugs. Those that are studied would be called the: sample.
Dreams often involve sudden emotional reactions and surprising changes in scene. This best serves to support the theory that dreams are triggered by random bursts of neural activity.
Which of the following is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia? Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime.
Terry has not had a decent night's sleep in over a week. If this sleep deprivation continues, he will become increasingly susceptible to viral infections.
Some subjects receive a depressant before going to sleep, other receive a placebo. Researchers then study how long it takes the subjects to fall asleep. In this study the dependent variable is: How long it takes to subjects to fall asleep.
Created by: heartxshpedxbox3 on 2010-12-02



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