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ACE Personal Trainer Study Cards Ch4

What are the six major classes of nutrients? 1 Protein Carbohydrates Fat Vitamins Minerals Water
What are essential amino acids? 2 Certain compounds that must be in the diet, since they cannot be manufactured by the pody. There are eight to ten essential amino acids of the twenty different amino acids needed to make proteins.
List the percentages of recommended nutrients. 3 Protein: 12-20% Carbohydrate: 55-65% Fat: 25-30% Vitamins and minerals: specific amounts listed in RDA Water: 2-3 quarts/day.
What are the dietary guidelines for Americans? 4 Eat a variety of foods; include physical activity; choose a diet low in fat, with plenty of vegetables, fruits and grain products, and moderate salt intake; drink alcoholic beverages in moderation.
What is nutrient density? 5 Nutrient dense foods provide more nutrients at a low caloric cost.
What is the difference between a complete and incomplete protein? 6a Complete proteins, found in most meats and dairy products, contain all 10 essential amino acids. Incomplete proteins contain some, but not all, of the essential amino acids.
How can you combine incomplete proteins to make a complete protein? 6b Combining of incomplete proteins to make complete proteins: Rice with sesame seeds, milk in legume soups, macaroni and cheese. Legumes and grains, milk and grains, nuts and legumes, milk and legumes.
What are some risk factors for heart disease? 7 High blood pressure; smoking; obesity; diabetes; males are at higher risk; family history of heart disease before the age of 55; low HDL (less that 35 mg/dl); circulation disorders.
What are antioxidants? 8 Compounds that preserve and protect other compounds in the body from free radical damage. Free radicals cause damage to tissues and create health problems. Linked to the development of cancer, atherosclerosis, cataracts, and the aging process.
How do minerals help the body? 9 Minerals help to build tissues, regulate muscle contractions and body fluids, conduct nerve impulses and regulate heart rhythm.
How many milligrams of iron are needed per day and why is iron needed? 10 18 mg/day. Iron is critical for the formation of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen within the red blood cells.
What are some guidelines for fluid replacement? 11 1-2 cups (8-16 ounces) one hour before exercise, 4-8 ounces of fluid every 10-15 minutes, 2 cups of fluid for every pound of body weight lost after exercise.
An individual comes to you complaining about workout recovery. They are feeling very tired, and sometimes after 2-3 straight days they are unable to work out the next consecutive day. What is happening to this individual from a nutritional standpoint? 12 This individual may not be restoring their glycogen appropriately after exercise. Studies show that individuals who consume about 1.5g of carbohydrate per kg of body weight within 30 min after a moderate to high intensity have better recovery rates.
What sort of problems will clients undergo during a workout if they are dehydrated? 13 The client will fatigue earlier and lose coordination skills. Their performance can suffer when they lose as little as 2% of body weight due to dehydration.
What is HDL? 14 HDL = High-density lipoprotein; a lipoprotein that contains more protein than cholesterol. Labeled "good" cholesterol because it removes excess cholesterol from the body.
What is hypoglycemia? 15 A deficiency of sugar in the blood commonly caused by too much insulin, too little glucose, or too much exercise in the insulin-dependent diabetic.
What is the energy-balance theory? 16 The principle the body weight will stay the same when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure, and that a positive or negative energy balance will cause weight gain or weight loss.
What do these five nutrients (beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, and the minerals sulfur and selenium) have in common? 17 They all have antioxidant properties.
What is the difference between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats? 18 Saturate fatty acid: A fatty acid that carries the maximum possible number of H atoms, leaving no point of unsaturation. Monounsaturated: A glycerol molecule with one fatty acid attached. Polyunsaturated: A triglyceride in which 2+ carbons have x2 bonds
What is obesity? 19 An excessive accumulation of body fat. Usually defined as more than 20% above ideal wight, or over 25% body fat for men and over 30% body fat for women.
Created by: icehands