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Science Literacy STH

Cranial nerve for smell? Olfactory I
Cranial nerve for vision (sensory)? Optic II
Cranial nerve for eyelid & eyeball movement? A lesion here causes ptosis (drooping eyelid) Oculomotor III
Cranial nerve that turns eye downward? Trochlear IV
Cranial nerve for chewing, face, mouth, touch and pain? Trigeminal V
Cranial nerve that turns eye laterally? Abducens VI
Cranial nerve that controls most facial expressions, secretion of tears and saliva? Lesion causes Bell's Palsy: facial paralysis, drooping corner of mouth Facial VII
Cranial nerve for hearing and equilibrium? Tested by paper crumbling next to ear. Vestibulocochlear VIII
Cranial nerve for taste, senses, carotid blood pressure, posterior 1/3 of mouth? Glossopharyngeal IX
Cranial nerve that senses aortic blood pressure, slows heart rate, stimulates digestive organs, taste? Vagus X
Cranial nerve that controls motor innervations of the neck, shoulders, head, and swallowing movements? Spinal Accessory XI
Cranial nerve that controls tongue movements? Hypoglossal XII
What is the Left Hemisphere responsible for? Controlling right side of body; mathematical ability, problem solving, language and decision-making.
What is the Right Hemisphere responsible for? Controlling left side of body; artistic expression and understanding relationships in space.
Which lobe is located below the crown of the head & what does it do? Parietal Lobe. Processes sensory information from the whole body (pain, touch, and pressure)
Which lobe is right behind the forehead & what does it do? is responsible for initiating and Frontal lobe. Coordinates motor movements and higher cognitive skills like problem solving and thinking.
Which lobe is located behind the temples and just above the ears? Temporal lobe. In charge of making sense of the information you hear. Integrates information from various senses, such as smell and vision.
What does the hypothalamus do? Where is it located? Controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst. Also includes sex drive and regulates pituitary gland. Located near base of brain.
What does the cerebellum do? Controls posture, movement, and the sense of balance.
What are the basic functions of the brain stem? The brain stem, the most primitive part, controls simple reflexes like coughing, sneezing, and digestion.
What is the pons? One of two parts of the brain stem. The pons contains fibers that connect the cerebral cortex with the cerebellum and spinal cord and controls sleeping, awakening and dreaming.
What is the medulla? Second of two parts of brain stem that controls heart rate, respiration and blood pressure; connects brain to spinal cord.
What two structures compose the limbic system? The hippocampus and the amygdala.
What does the hippocampus do? controls learning and memory. Part of limbic system.
What does the amygdala do? Where is it located? Plays an important role in emotional behavior. Located in the temporal lobes.
What is the largest part of the brain? The cerebral cortex.
What does the cerebral cortex do? As the most highly developed part of the brain the cerebral cortex controls thinking, perceiving, and understanding language.
What does the corpus callosum do? Connects the two hemispheres of the brain.
Topmost of three swellings that initially forms the brain? The prosencephelon (composed of telencephelon and diencephalon) becomes the forebrain.
Central of three swellings that initially form the brain? The mesencephalon becomes the midbrain.
The bottommost of three swellings that initially form the brain? The rhombencephalon (composed of metencephalon and mylencephalon) compose the hindbrain.
What are the two neural tube deficits that can occur during brain formation? Failure to close anterior neural pore: anencepaly Failure to close in the posterior neural pore: spina bifida.
What is the embryo's beginnings of a CNS? The Neural tube. Which is the neural plate that has developed its groove to the point that it fuses.
What is the telencephalon? Cerebral hemispheres.
What is the Diencephalon? thalamus and hypothalamus.
What is the metencephalon? cerebellum and pons
What is the mylencephalon? medulla oblongota
What are the main functional areas of the brain? The hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain, brain stem and spinal cord.
What composes the hindbrain, why is it important? The medulla is above the spinal cord and controls vital reflexes like breathing and heartrate. The pons connects and relays information between the cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Cerebellum controls movement and balance. Life functions.
what composes the midbrain? Tectum, Superior and inferior colliculus, tegmentum, and substantia nigra.
What composes the forebrain? Cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia and limbic system.
What is the Basal Ganglia and where is it located? Prefrontal cortex functions like planning, memory and emotional expression. Located left and right of thalamus.
Components of Limbic System? Olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala.
What are the three meninges of the brain? Dura mater: outer most, extremely tough. arachnoid: middle layer pia mater: intricately attached to the spinal cord. These enclose and protect the CNS.
What is a gyrus? a ridge in the brain.
What is a sulcus? a groove in the brain.
What results from damage to the frontal lobes? Failure to remember consequences, failure to imagine emotional consequences, risk-taking.
What results from damage to the parietal lobe? Senses of touch; often leads to neglect of affected area.
Functions of the frontal lobe? executive cognitive functions, working memory, language, personality.
Functions of parietal lobe? Processes body information like touch, muscle-stretch perceptors, joint receptors.
Functions of occipital lobe? Receives input from the thalamus, visual cortex.
What is the homunculus? The homunculus is a pictorial representation of the portion of the brain responsible for the movement and exchange of sense and motor information. Lower 1/3: face, Middle 1/3: hand, upper 1/3: trunk, medial= leg foot hip
What is the central fissure? The separating feature of the frontal and parietal lobes, runs across the brain.
What is the lateral fissure? The separating feature of the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobes. It runs from the temple back to the occipital lobe.
what is the premotor cortex? The rear portion of the frontal lobe, just before the central fissure. It controls voluntary movements.
Where is the somatosensory cortex? The front of the parietal lobe, behind the central fissure
What and where is Wernicke's area? On the Sylvian fissure, where the temporal and parietal lobes meet, usually on the left side. Concerns language.
What is the whole point of the ECFs? Self-regulation for future goals in the context of a social environment.
Executive cognitive functioning implicates which units? Prefrontal cortex and the Limbic system (specifically the amygdala and nucleus accumbens).
What are the four categories of ECFs? Volition, Planning, Purposive action, and effective performance
Symptoms of a patient with bad ECFs? Problems with self control, easily annoyed, impulsivity, rigidity, personality changes.
What is the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE)? The basic test that measures patients' behavior, cognitive functioning, and awareness. Orientation (what day is it?); attention (serial 7's, forwards and backwards); recall (what were those objects I asked you to remember?); language (Write, read?)
Where is dopamine produced in the brain? Dopamine is produced in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area and is projected to the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex.
What are the two main dopaminergic tracts impaired by PD? 1. Nigrostriatal tract, or the "movement pathway" 2. Mesolimbic tract, or "reward pathway"
What is the projection of the nigrostriatal tract? The "movement pathway" projects from the substantia nigra of the midbrain to the basal ganglia.
What is the projection of the mesolimbic tract? The "reward pathway" projects from the ventral tegmental area to the frontal lobes (striatum [caudate + putamen]), the limbic system, and the frontal cortex.
What are the PD symptoms referred to as the cardinal triad? 1. resting tremor 2. rigidity 3. bradykinesia
What are some possible causes of PD? Genetics, Oxidative stress, environmental toxins, excitotoxicity, apoptosis.
Created by: dashabul