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RA QI:Final

Facial Bones and Facial Muscles

the care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color restorative art
anatomical study of the face and the features physiognomy
natural, most common characteristic of a feature or anatomical part norm
exception to the norm, anatomical oddity anomaly
front of the body, in front of point of reference anterior
toward the back of the body or point of reference posterior
toward the head of the body, above a point of reference superior
toward the feet, below a point of reference inferior
toward the middle or midline medial
away from the middle, on the side lateral
on both sides bilateral
jutting out of a part or structure in comparison with a background plane or another part of the structure projection
the moving backward of a part in comparison to a foreground plane recession
curving or bulging outward or forward convex curvature
curving or sinking inward or backward from a foreground plane concave curvature
the top or the bottom of a curved surface, where the direction changes crest of a curvature
the state of being out of balance or alignment asymmetry
structure purpose: to give support and shape to all anatomical features superior to it Bone
typical shape of the skull ovoid
the width of the skull is approximately _____ its length 2/3
name the 6 cranial bones frontal, parietal (2), temporal (2), occipital
name the 7 facial bones nasal (2), zygomatic (2), maxillary (2), mandible
most posterior and inferior of the cranial bones occipital
occipital bone sep. from the parietal and temporal bones by the _____ suture lambdoidal
located medially on the inferior surface of the occipital bone, spinal cord descends through this foramen magnum
small eminence located medially and posterior to the foramen magnum external occipital protuberance
bony ridge that extends bilaterally from the external occipital protuberance superior nuchal crest
large eminences on either side of the foramen magnum, C1 fits into these occipital condyles
bones located superior to the temporal and occipital bones and posterior to the frontal bone parietal bones
suture that sep. the two parietal bones midsagital suture
suture that seps. parietal bones from occipital lambdoidal suture
suture that seps. temporal bones from parietals squamosal suture
suture that seps. frontal bone from parietals coronal suture
bump that marks the change in direction of the parietal bone parietal eminence
widest part of the skull is measured between these landmarks parietal eminences
bones inferior to the parietal bones and anterior to the occipital bone temporal bones
suture that seps. occipital from temporal lambdoidal
suture that seps. parietal and temporal squamosal
anterior and superior part of the temporal bone, the thinnest bone of the skull squama
tube-like opening on the temporal bone leads to inner ear external auditory meatus
small socket-like depression anterior to ear passage on temporal bone mandibular fossa
most posteroinferior part of the temporal bone, SCM muscle attaches here mastoid process
widest part of the neck is measured at this landmark mastoid processes
narrow ribbon-like landmark that touches zygomatic bone, originates on temporal bone zygomatic arch
the widest part of the face as a whole is measured here between zygomatic arches
most anterosuperior bone of the cranium frontal
suture that seps. frontal bone from parietals coronal
suture that seps. frontal bone from temporals squamosal
rounded bumps on the frontal bone which mark the change in direction, hairline begins here frontal eminences
comma-like bumps above the medial part of the eyebrow on the frontal bone supercilliary arches
bony ridge behind the eyebrows on the frontal bone supraorbital margin
small smooth elevation between the eyebrows, just above the nose on the frontal bone glabella
vertical ridge on each side of of the vertical surface of the frontal bone lines of the temple
the angle measured on the inside of the line of the temple measures 110 degrees
facial bones that lie directly inferior and obliquely anterior to the glabella nasal bones
forms the superior portion of the nasal cavity perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
forms the inferior portion of the nasal cavity vomer bone
facial bones located inferior and lateral to orbital cavities zygomatic bones
point where the front of the cheek changes direction, located inferolateral to the corner of the eye prominences of the cheek
the widest part of the anterior plane of the face is measured between these facial landmarks prominences of the cheek
a naturally reddened portion of the skin due to the concentration of capillaries-name an example warm areas-prominences of the cheek
located inferior to the nasal cavity and lateral to the nasal cavity and the nasal bone maxillary bones
forms the posterior part of the nasal septum at the midline maxillary bone, nasal spine
tooth sockets, how many? alveolar margin, 16
roof of the mouth, what bone? palatine process, maxillary bone
most anterior and inferior bone of the skull mandible
curved horizontal part of the mandible body
the straight vertical portions of the mandible ramus
projection of mandible at the midline, just above the base of the chin mental eminence
depression of the mandible btw the mental eminence and the incisors incisive fossa
angle formed by the joining of the ramus and the body of the mandible angle of the mandible
range of the mandibular angle in prime of life? in old age? 110-120, old age: 140
knob-like end of ramus of mandible, fits into the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone mandibular condyle
projection of the jaws or a part of the jaws beyond the upper part of the face prognathism
the direction of the furrow of a muscle is always at a _____ angle to the striation of the muscle right
the ability of a muscle to go back to its original position and to hold that position muscle tone
stationary point of muscle attachment origin
point of muscle attachment where the pull of the muscle is applied when the muscle contracts insertion
what a muscle does action
directional alignment of the fibers in a muscle, the grain striation
area of muscle where bulk of volume is located belly
connective tissue which attaches the muscle to another structure tendon
a muscle which surrounds a natural body opening, purse string action sphincter
fan shaped muscle, multiple origins to one point of insertion radiating
muscles that reverse the action of each other antagonistic
muscle that raises the eyebrows occipito-frontalis
the muscle of surprise occipito-frontalis
a tendon that covers the top of the skull and part of the sides of the skull Gali Aponeurotica
muscle located on the temporal bone, the strongest chewing muscle temporalis
muscle that forms the eyelids, allows us to blink orbicularis oculi
crow's feet optic facial sulci
muscle that draws the medial ends of the eyebrows together and down corrigator
the frowning muscle corrigator
deep line in the middle of the forehead when frowning vertical intercilliary sulcus
muscle that raises the eyelid levator palpabrae superioris
the ridge on the upper eyelid where eyelashes grow out of tarsis
shallow wrinkles on the upper eyelids linear sulci
helps the corrigator in frowning, draws medial ends of the eyebrows forward and down procerus
shallow wrinkles across the root of the nose transverse intercilliary sulci
right angle to the procerus muscle, aids in widening the nostrils depressor nasalis
nasalis muscle depressor nasalis
sphincter muscle which closes and protrudes the lips orbicularis oris
vertical depression on the midline of lip, dividing into two irregular halves philtrum
raises the upper lip and wing of the nose levator labii superioris alaquae nasi
common elevator levator labii superioris alaquae nasi
medial head of the quadratus levator labii superioris alaquae nasi
main muscle that raises and moves the upper lip levator labii superioris
intermediate head of the quadratus levator labii superioris
raises the corner of the mouth superiorly and laterally zygomaticus minor
smiling muscle zygomaticus minor
lateral head of the quadratus zygomaticus minor
lifts the corner of the mouth levator anguli oris
snarling muscle levator anguli oris
laughing muscle zygomaticus major
deepest of the cheek muscles buccinator
compresses the cheek buccinator
bugler's/trumpeter's muscle buccinator
intermediate of the cheek muscles masseter
helps to raise the mandible for speech and chewing masseter
most superficial of the cheek muscles risorius
retracts the sides of the mouth bilaterally and exposes the teeth risorius
grinner, grin-maker risorius
pulls down the corner/angle of the mouth depressor anguli oris
triangularis depressor anguli oris
pulls lower lip downward, primary mover of the lower lip depressor labii inferioris
raises and protrudes the lower lip, gives fullness to the chin mentalis
place to perform the musculature suture for mouth closure mentalis
shock and horror muscle platysma
muscles that act together to rotate the head sterno-cleido-mastoid
these two muscles form the cords of the neck in old age digastricus and omo-hyoidius
abnormal upper jaw projection maxillary prognathism
abnormal genetic projection of the body of the mandible-a werewolf look mandibular prognathism
abnormal forward projection of the sockets and teeth alveolar prognathism
buck teeth/overbite: teeth grow forward out of sockets too far forward dental prognathism
abnormal forward projection of the upper jaw beneath the nose infranasal prognathism
the widest part of the neck is measured distance between SCM muscle at the mastoid processes
brown or black pigment of the skin melanin
local and permanent concentration of melanin due to aging (two terms) chloasma, liver spots
localized absence or permanent absence of melanin, gradual loss of color (two terms) leukoderma, vitiligo
congenital absence of melanin albinism
localized increase in dermal cells, a neoplasm (two terms) nevus, mole
local and temporary concentration of melanocytes-freckles lentigo
yellow pigment found in low levels of epidermis carotene
pigment found in the blood of superficial capillaries hematin
port wine stain due to benign blood tumor of the face angioma
three basic facial profiles convex, concave, vertical
most common facial profile convex
facial profile in which the forehead recedes (curves back) from the eyebrow to the hairline and the chin recedes from the projection of the upper lip convex
facial profile where forehead, upper lip, and chin all project to the same line vertical
facial profile in which the forehead protrudes from eyebrow to hairline and the chin protrudes farther than the philtrum concave
least common facial profile concave
how many possible facial profiles? 9
how many variations of the facial profiles? name them. 6. convex-concave, convex-vertical, concave-convex, concave-vertical, vertical-concave, vertical-convex
how many geometric frontal shapes of the face 7
frontal face shape where the length is approximately the width (two terms) round, infantine
frontal face shape where the width equals 2/3s length, most common oval
frontal face shape where the length and width are equal (two terms) square
frontal face shape, width is less than 2/3s length, long and narrow oblong
frontal face shape, greatest width is at angles of mandible, least common triangular
frontal face shape, widest between temples, flat forehead inverted triangle
frontal face shape, greatest width across cheek bones, narrow forehead, narrow jaws diamond
the division of the upper third of the face is between hairline and upper border of the eyebrow
the division of the middle third of the face is between upper border of the eyebrow to the base of the nose
the division of the lower third of the face is between base of the nose and base of the chin
the superior 1/3 of the lower third of the face is between base of nose to line of lip closure
the middle 1/3 of the lower third of the face is between line of lip closure to labiomental sulcus
the inferior 1/3 of the lower third of the face is between labiomental sulcus and base of the chin
the line of lip closure should lie _____ between the base of the nose and the top of the chin halfway
all of the supplemental equalities equal ____ of the face 2/3
hairline to base of nose is equal to 3 things: eyebrow to base of chin, tip of the nose to ear passage, ear passage to ear passage
face is ___ eyewidths wide from zygomatic arch to zygomatic arch 5
Old ways and why they didn't work plaster of paris, clay, paraffin
didn't work because shrinks and discolors plaster of paris
didn't work because nothing would stick to it clay
didn't work because hard to stick and doesn't take cosmetics paraffin
derma surgery, plastar surgery, demi surgery old terms of R/A
less then 20 min, one step minor r/a
more than 20 min, multiple steps major r/a
oblique shape inclination
muscle with ribbion like tendon aponeurosis
levator labii superiris alaque nasi, levator labbii superious, zygomaticus minor, levator anguli orris quadratis muscle
adipose, glands, deep fascia(connective tissue), superficial fascia 4 types of tissue
thinest tissues over the eyelid
made up of caralidge, and ceruminous glands ear
farthest distance between skin and bone cheek
cell producing melainin melanocytes
blood vessles, nurves, deep, sebacious glands, and sudoriforus glands dermis
superficial, protects from dehydration, contains melanocytes epidermis
aging, exposure to uv light, climate or weather, heredity factors affecting age
normal/natural light best lighting for photo
direct light not best
flat lighting close intense flash- wash out
comparision of 2 sides of face/features to observe and note similarites/differences bilateral view
standard by which we measure human appearance-basis for comparison, by greeks canon of beauty
any bertical measurement length
any horizontal measurement width
vertical measurment of a part of a feature within a greater verical measurement height
apex to base of chin head
7.5 to 8 times head hight body height
head shape oval
hairline to base of nose, eyebrow to base of chin, tip of nose to ear passage, ear passage to ear passage straight through head all 2/3 of face known as supplemental equalities
1/2 between vertex of cranium and base of chin line of eye closure
best portate view 3/4 view
photo age 6months
any area or surface of face lying at a right angle to source of illumination which relfects max amount of light highlight
any part not at right angle away from light shaddow
Created by: amyziolkowski