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Aristotle (384 BC) Ancient Greek philosopher who discussed the nature of sensory perception and believed humans to be the "social animal." Theorized about learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception, and personality.
Mary Whiton Calkins (1905) Became the first woman president of the APA. Created paired-associates technique for studying memory.
Charles Darwin (1859) Wrote about the theory of organic evolution. Physical, sexual, and emotional evolutionary concepts have been studied based on the belief of "survival of the fittest."
René Descartes (1595-1650) French philosopher; believed in dualism, which states that humans have a dual nature: mental and physical. Also believed some human ideas were innate.
Albert Ellis (1980) Developed rational emotive therapy (RET), which assumes a patient has abnormal behavior due to irrational thinking. A person's belief is iwthin his control even when his environment is uncontrollable.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Wrote "Interpretation of Dreams" in 1900. Father of psychoanalytic perspective, developed theories about sexual and aggressive drives. Believed an individual passes through five psychosexual stages of development. Described personality as interaction of i
Franz Joseph Gall (1800s) Developed phrenology map of the skull
Karen Horney (1932) neo-Freudian, argued that culture has a role in development
William James (1890) Published widely used Principles of Psychology and established perspective of functionalism
John Locke (1632-1704) Believed that children are born as a blank slate and their environment and experiences determine course of development
Abraham Maslow (1970) Humanistic psychologist, developed hierarchy of needs
Ivan Pavlov (1906) Animal learning. Taught dog to drool when sounds/sights associated with food were presented.
Carl Rogers (1980) Humanistic. Expanded on hierarchy of needs, developed a therapy using unconditional positive regard
Socrates (490-300 BC)/Plato (427-347 BC) Ancient philosophers. Believed in separate existence of body and soul (dualism).
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Behavioral personality theorist, developed box with a button for animals to press to receive food. Discovered "shaping" and that rewarded behaviors will increase
Margaret Floy Washburn (1908) first woman to receive a PhD in psychology; synthesized research on animal behavior
John b. Watson (1913) Promoted psychology as the science of behavior. Conditioned "Little Albert."
Wilhelm Wundt (1879) Structuralist who believed that science of psychology should study the conscious mind. Developed introspection. Established first laboratory solely devoted to psychology in Leipzig, Germany.
Created by: catherine1994