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chapter5psych

QuestionAnswer
transduction is the process of converting information from one form to another.
why is it important to understand our senses? they limit what we can experience.
which figure is closer to you? neither
a stronger stimulus is more likely to produce____than a weaker stimulus. more frequent action potentials.
Illusions reflect the effects of how information is encoded.
pacinian corpuscles release endorphins.
massages feel good because of the release of endorphins.
all of the kinesthetic senses indicate what muscles are doing.
the activity of a sensory organ is not influenced by stimuli below the absolute threshold.
the method of limits and the method of constant stimuli can be used to establish absolute, difference, and terminal threshold.
If you barely notice the difference between a 150 and 160 watt bulb, you probably will not notice a difference between a 200 and a 210 watt bulb
A lifeguard is likely to make a lot of False alarms and hits.
Which part of the ear tends to amplify vibrations? middle ear.
Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of the ________ theory. Young-Helmholtz
The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates: parallel processing.
With her eyes closed, Sierra can accurately touch her mouth, nose, and chin with her index finger. Sierra's accuracy illustrates the importance of: kinesthesis.
According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when both red and greensensitive cones are stimulated simultaneously, a person should see: yellow.
During the months when there is a large amount of pollen in the air, your hay fever severely affects your sense of smell. At the same time your food all seems to taste the same. This illustrates the importance of: sensory interaction.
People who demonstrate blindsight have most likely suffered damage to their: visual cortex.
When most people stare first at a blue circle and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the circle appears: yellow.
Henry can easily read distant road signs, but words on a page appear blurred to him. Henry probably has: shorter-than-normal eyeballs.
When most people stare at a red square and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the square is: green.
An 80-decibel sound is ________ times louder than a 60-decibel sound. 100.
Our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are experiencing pain. This best illustrates the importance of: top-down processing.
The patient “E.H.” suffers from prosopagnosia and is unable to recognize her own face in a mirror. Her difficulty stems from a deficiency in: top-down processing.
Which of the following strategies best illustrates the use of subliminal stimulation? A store plays a musical soundtrack in which a faint and imperceptible verbal warning against shoplifting is repeated frequently.
The 130-decibel sound of a rock band is ________ times louder than the 100-decibel sound of a nearby subway train. 1000.
People's response to subliminal priming indicates that: they are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so.
If we see a speaker mouthing day while actually hearing someone else saying may, we may perceive a third syllable bay that blends both inputs. This phenomenon is known as: the McGurk effect.
After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates: sensory adaptation.
The activation of some feature detectors in response to visual stimulation depends on our assumptions and interpretations of the sensory input. This best illustrates the importance of: top-down processing.
Culture has a large role in determining if: People who are deaf receive a cochlear implant.
What we see, hear, feel, smell and taste are determined to a large extent by: genes.
The sense of balance is controlled by the ______, which communicate directly with the _____, which controls the fine movements that help us remain upright. Vestibular sense, cerebellum.
The Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic theory suggests that: Which neurons are active is related to the color we see.
To make interpretation of written words possible, the: Retina must be connected to Broca's area.
For written words to make sense, they must be transduced by the Rods and cones, and follow the rules of grammar.
Conduction hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss would most directly impact: echoic memory.
Which of the following is most closely associated with the cochlea? acoustic encoding.
Generalization is possible, but discrimination is not possible, if the difference between two stimuli is: below the difference threshold.
To be effective, a conditioned stimulus must be: above the absolute threshold.
You want to test the ______ that men and women differ in their sensory thresholds. One way to do this would be to conduct _____ in which these thresholds are determined for a large group of men and women. hypothesis, an experiment.
Because people differ in their sensitivity to stimuli, there should be a: range of absolute thresholds.
A functionalist would be most interested in: how people use audition.
Of the following, which would be most interested in understanding how information from multiple senses is combined to create something meaningful? a structuralist.
As compared to long objects, short objects vibrate ________ and produce sound waves of ________ frequency. faster; higher.
The waveform of a sound determines our experience of: timbre.
People's memories of the pain involved in a previously experienced medical procedure are dominated by the: pain experienced during the final moments of the procedure.
Sensory adaptation helps us to focus our attention on ________ stimuli. novel.
The fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by: the opponent-process theory.
Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates: blindsight.
According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the: activation of specific neural fibers in your spinal cord.
participants in a subliminal persuasion experiment thought that they were receiving subliminal affirmations of their self-esteem when in reality they were receiving subliminal memory-enhancement instructions. These individuals subsequently demonstrated: an erroneous belief that their self-esteem had improved.
In experiments, an image is quickly flashed and then replaced by a “masking” stimulus that inhibits conscious perception of the original image. In these experiments, the researchers are studying the effects of: priming.
When informed that a brief message would be flashed during a TV show, viewers reported feeling hungry or thirsty during the show. Since the imperceptible message had nothing to do with hunger or thirst, viewers' strange reactions best illustrate: accommodation.
When stabilized retinal images of an initially presented word disappear, new words made up of parts of the initial word will subsequently appear and then vanish. This best illustrates the impact of: top-down processing.
The amplitude of electromagnetic waves determines the ________ of light. brightness.
Damage to the basilar membrane is most likely to result in: nerve deafness.
Damage to the cochlea's hair cell receptors is most likely to cause a loss of: audition.
The semicircular canals are most directly relevant to: the vestibular sense.
Loudness is to amplitude as pitch is to: frequency.
Detection is to interpretation as ________ is to ________. sensation; perception
When Judy reads a book, the images of the printed words come into sharpest focus at a point behind her retina. This indicates that she: is farsighted.
Which of the following is an example of sensory adaptation? not realizing how cold it is after you have been outdoors for a while in winter
Which of the following strategies best illustrates the use of subliminal stimulation? A trim female figure is imperceptibly flashed on the TV screen during an ad for a weight-reduction clinic.
Psychophysical measurements for individuals are strongly influenced by: their genome.
Everyone experiences sensory adaptation. This suggests that sensory adaptation is: the result of natural selection.
The kinesthetic senses are associated with activity in which lobe of the cerebral cortex? parietal.
_____ is likely to be involved in controlling the pain “gate.” endorphin.
Chunking requires: top-down processing.
Farsightedness may make it hard for someone to detect the: unconditioned stimulus.
The Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic and the Opponent-process theories are theories, not hypotheses, because: They are used to explain behavior.
You find that the standard deviation for the absolute threshold of sound is larger for men than it is for women. This means that: Men are more variable in their ability to hear quiet noises than are women.
Of the following, which would be least interested in the effects of drugs on pain? a structuralist.
The most common form of colorblindness is a(n) _______ color deficiency. red-green.
The stimulus energy underlying your experience of sound involves continuous changes in: air pressure.
Opponent-process cells have been located in the: thalamus.
The retina is to the eye as the ________ is to the ear. cochlea.
Of the four distinct skin senses, specialized receptor cells have been identified for the sense of: pressure.
The noise level at Sherry's place of work sometimes becomes quite intense. This is most likely to disrupt her ability to work efficiently if the noise: is experienced at unpredictable intervals throughout the day.
Damage to the fovea would have the greatest effect on: visual acuity.
The most lightsensitive receptor cells are the: rods.
The local fire department sounds the 12 o'clock whistle. The process by which your ears convert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of: transduction.
Kinesthesis refers to the: system for sensing the position and movement of muscles, tendons, and joints.
As people grow older, they are most likely to need glasses because: the lens loses its ability to change shape readily.
Long sound waves are to short sound waves as a ________ voice is to a ________ voice. bass; soprano.
Low-pitched sounds are to high-pitched sounds as ________ colors are to ________ colors. red; blue.
Jennifer can tune her guitar more effectively than Maria because Jennifer is better at detecting whether specific strings are playing too sharp or too flat. With respect to tone sensitivity, Maria apparently has a ________ threshold than does Jennifer. larger difference.
The ability to process information automatically and without conscious awareness of doing so is best illustrated by: blindsight.
After the invisible word “bread” was quickly flashed and then replaced by a “masking” stimulus, observers detected the related word “butter” much faster than the unrelated word “bubble.” This best illustrates: the priming effect.
Which of the following best illustrates the impact of central nervous system activity in the absence of normal sensory input? tinnitus
Someone interested in behavior genetics might be explore: The role of the Y chromosome in the control of responsiveness to pain.
Auditory information is initially processed in the: Temporal lobes.
The place theory of hearing suggests that: Which neurons are active is related to the pitch we hear.
Feature detectors for commonly used words are probably located in: Wernicke's area.
The experience of “Eureka, I understand it” is typically described as: a sensation.
Priming facilitates: Detection of stimuli and retention in memory.
Iconic memory is linked to the: Detection of stimuli and retention in memory.
Priming may facilitate the development of: observational learning.
To be effective, a conditioned stimulus must be: above the absolute threshold.
As the pupil gets larger, the iris shrinks. Thus, there is: a negative correlation between pupil and iris size.
Trichromatic and opponent process theory are used by psychologists to: Understand behavior and mental processes.
Of the following, which would be most interested in understanding how information from multiple senses is combined to create something meaningful? a structuralist.
Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color ________ and the shortest visible waves as ________. red; blue-violet.
Visual information is processed by: feature detectors before it is processed by rods and cones.
According to the opponent-process theory, cells that are stimulated by exposure to: green light are inhibited by exposure to red light.
Experiencing an apple as being red is to ________ as recognizing an apple as being a fruit is to ________. sensation; perception
Pablo thinks 75-watt light bulbs give more light than 60-watt bulbs. His wife thinks both are equally bright. Pablo apparently has a ________ threshold for light than his wife. smaller difference.
The mechanical vibrations triggered by sound waves are transduced into neural impulses by: hair cells.
Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light? cones.
Which cells for visual processing are located closest to the back of the retina? rods and cones.
When you look at a vertical line, you are probably activating different ________ than when you look at a horizontal line. feature detectors.
Intensity is to brightness as wavelength is to: hue.
On a cloudy day, a yellow flower is likely to appear ________ it does on a bright sunny day. equally as yellow as.
According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones are all stimulated simultaneously, a person should see: white.
In order to experience color constancy it is helpful to view things: in relation to surrounding objects.
During the months when there is a large amount of pollen in the air, your hay fever severely affects your sense of smell. At the same time your food all seems to taste the same. This illustrates the importance of: sensory interaction.
Which theory emphasizes that personal expectations and motivations influence the level of absolute thresholds? signal detection theory.
The importance of parallel processing is best illustrated by: blindsight.
The kinesthetic senses are associated with activity in which lobe of the cerebral cortex? parietal.
The frequency of a sound wave is measured in: Hertz.
The opponent-process theory explains why we would see a ________ afterimage after staring at a blue object. yellow.
If the just-noticeable difference for a 10ounce weight is 1 ounce, the just noticeable difference for an 80-ounce weight would be ________ ounce(s). 8.
Patients' negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure can increase their postoperative experience of pain. This best illustrates the importance of: top-down processing.
Jacob, a 60-year-old accountant, notices a loss of hearing only for higher-frequency sounds. It is most likely that this hearing loss involves problems in the: cochlea.
Which of the following circumstances is most likely to contribute to conduction hearing loss? misuse of Qtips (cotton swabs) in cleaning your ears
The ability to simultaneously recognize the color, shape, size, and speed of an oncoming automobile best illustrates: parallel processing.
Brightness is to intensity as hue is to: wavelength.
The green-colored ham and eggs had such a strange appearance that they tasted terrible to you even though the food coloring did not change anything other than the color. This illustrates the importance of: sensory interaction.
Areas of the brain involved in memory are located most closely to areas of the brain responsible for our sense of: smell.
According to the opponent-process theory, cells that are stimulated by exposure to ________ light are inhibited by exposure to ________ light. yellow; blue.
A subliminal message is one that is presented: below one's absolute threshold for awareness.
Experiencing a green afterimage of a red object is most easily explained by: the opponent-process theory.
Which theory would suggest that watching a horror movie late at night could lower your absolute threshold for sound as you subsequently tried to fall asleep? signal detection theory
Absolute thresholds are more the result of: Nature than nurture.
Feature detectors for visual stimuli are located within the: Occipital lobes.
The low notes on a piano always produce ________ sound waves than the high notes. longer.
The frequency theory of hearing suggests that: The rate of action potentials is related to the pitch we hear.
When their child is at the one-word stage, parents may _____ that their child has said “dada,” and then interpret these _____ as the concept “father.” Perceive, phonemes.
Receptive language development is delayed by: hearing loss.
You read something, then reread it. This helps you remember the material because of the effects of both: priming and relearning.
Echoic memory is linked to the: cochlea.
Modeling requires the ability to: transduce stimuli.
You find that, on average, women have a lower mean absolute threshold than do men. This means that: Women may hear sounds that men cannot detect.
Accommodation suggests that there should be a _____ between the distance an object is from the eye and the thickness of the lens. correlation.
A behaviorist would be most interested in: Changes in behavior that occur when a stimulus is above the absolute threshold.
Someone interested in what sounds people hear and which they cannot detect is probably: conducting basic research.
Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________. detection; interpretation.
Rods are: more light-sensitive and less color-sensitive than are cones.
Pleasant memories are most likely to be evoked by exposure to: fragrant odors.
The ability to process information automatically and without conscious awareness of doing so is best illustrated by: blindsight.
As a rock musician who has experienced prolonged exposure to highamplitude music, Rodney is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that this hearing loss involves problems in the: cochlea.
Although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower ________ for skunk odor than his parents have. absolute threshold.
Which of the following best illustrates the impact of central nervous system activity in the absence of normal sensory input? tinnitus.
Joe Wilson, age 55, has been told by experts that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing. It is likely that Joe's hearing loss involves problems within the: middle ear.
If your identical twin is nearsighted, the odds are that you will be too. This is less true if your fraternal twin is nearsighted. This suggests that visual acuity is: heritable.
Feature detectors for visual stimuli are located within the: cerebral cortex.
When their child is at the one-word stage, parents _____ their child say “dada.” They may interpret these sounds as suggesting that the child has developed the _____ of daddy. perceive, concept.
Auditory and visual memory are separate. This is one example of: parallel processing.
Which of the following is most closely associated with the retina? Visual encoding.
Nearsightedness may make it hard for someone to detect the: conditioned stimulus.
If you wanted to train a cat to discriminate between a dim light and a slightly brighter one, you must be sure that: The difference between the two stimuli is above the difference threshold.
If one were to plot the frequency of absolute and difference thresholds for a specific stimulus, the result would resemble a: normal distribution.
If one were interested in the absolute and difference thresholds of a person, perhaps because that individual were exceptional in some way, one might conduct: case study.
A humanist would be most interested in: individual differences in absolute threshold.
Someone interested in understanding the causes of nearsightedness so that they could help people with that problem would probably: conduct applied research.
Damage to frontal areas of the temporal lobes is most likely to affect our: sense of smell.
The barn owl's right ear opens slightly upward while its left ear opens slightly downward. This asymmetry is most useful for enabling the owl to detect the ________ of a sound. location.
New research indicates that we have a receptor for a seeming fifth taste sensation, the meaty taste of: umami.
Which theory assumes that top-down processing can influence a person's absolute threshold for a particular stimulus? signal detection theory.
Which of the following types of cells are located in the brain's occipital lobe? feature detectors.
Participants in one experiment felt more positively about people if their photographs had been associated with scenes of kittens rather than with scenes of werewolves. This study best illustrated: that information can be processed outside of conscious awareness.
Deaf culture advocates are most likely to object to the use of cochlear implants for: children who have been deaf from birth.
Cones and rods are to vision as ________ are to audition. hair cells.
Genes are important in determining: absolute threshold.
For spoken words to make sense, they must be transduced by the: Cochlea and follow the rules of grammar.
To make interpretation of spoken words possible, the: Cochlea must be connected to Wernicke's area.
Subliminal stimuli do not generally produce the long term potentiation necessary to place information in: long-term memory.
Priming may facilitate the development of: respondent behavior.
A psychologist would be interested in: The effect of hearing loss on behavior and mental processes.
Which of the following play the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after a thrilling roller coaster ride? semicircular canals.
If a partially deaf person's hearing ability ________, his or her absolute threshold for sound ________. improves; decreases
The integration of information processed simultaneously by multiple neural networks can be detected as a pattern of: synchronized brain waves.
Mrs. Acheube is just beginning to experience sensorineural hearing loss. She is likely to have the greatest difficulty hearing sounds of: high frequency and low amplitude
Research participants who listened repeatedly to commercial subliminal tapes designed to improve self-esteem subsequently demonstrated ________ in their self-esteem test scores. no improvement.
The biopsychosocial approach to pain is likely to emphasize the importance of both: top-down and bottom-up processing.
The direct link between a single cone and a single ________ preserves the fine details in the cone's message. bipolar cell.
After a small section of his basilar membrane was damaged, Jason experienced a noticeable loss of hearing for high-pitched sounds only. Jason's hearing loss is best explained by the ________ theory. place.
A psychophysicist would be most directly concerned with: the relationship between the wavelength of light and the experience of color.
The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Weisel consist of: nerve cells in the brain.
En route to the visual cortex, neural impulses from the retina are first relayed to the: thalamus.
The heritability of sensorineural hearing loss is: Moderate, reflecting both the effects of environment and heredity.
Subliminally presented stimuli can sometimes be consciously perceived.
Conduction hearing loss is most likely to result from damage to the: eardrum.
The ability to almost instantly recognize a familiar face best illustrates the value of: parallel processing.
Many hard-of-hearing people like sound compressed because they remain sensitive to ________ sounds. loud.
Berdine has developed cataracts in both eyes, preventing her from being able to identify even her mother's face. Berdine most clearly suffers a deficiency in: bottom-up processing.
One neural pathway detects differences in the loudness of a sound received by each of our ears while another neural pathway simultaneously detects differences in the arrival time of a sound to each of our ears. This best illustrates: parallel processing.
Damage to the fovea would probably have the least effect on visual sensitivity to ________ stimuli. dimly illuminated.
Which theory best explains how we perceive low-pitched sounds? frequency theory.
The volley principle is most directly relevant to our perception of: pitch.
Giulio's bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim's. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Giulio's bag feel heavier. This best illustrates: Weber's Law.
Brightness is to light as ________ is to sound. loudness.
The conversion of the mechanical energy produced by sound waves into neural impulses occurs in the: cochlea.
Weber's law is relevant to an understanding of: difference thresholds.
Which of the following would play a role in quickly alerting you to a gas leak in your home? olfactory receptors
The ability to detect whether your body is in a horizontal or vertical position depends most directly on: the vestibular sense.
The opponent-process theory suggests that: The rate of action potentials is related to the color we see.
Ventriloquism works because _____ makes it possible to recognize that the sound you heard came from the mouth of the dummy whose lips you see moving. Parallel processing
Observational learning requires the ability to: Transduce stimuli.
Compared to rods, cones are: less sensitive to dim light and more sensitive to fine detail.
According to place theory, the perception of: high-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the basilar membrane closest to the oval window.
When looking at the hands of a clock showing 8 o'clock, certain brain cells in the visual cortex are more responsive than when the hands show 10 o'clock. This is most indicative of: feature detection.
The hue (or color) of light depends on its: wavelength.
There are no specialized neural receptor cells devoted solely to the sense of: warmth.
The ear handles___differently. high and low frequencies.
the___focuses light on the retina. Cornea and lens.
Light must pass through the___to get to the retina. Pupil
What expands in response to bright light? Iris.
Where are the photoreceptors located? Retina.
Which cells serve to spread information beyond the path that leads straight to the brain? Amacrine and horizontal.
The direct path from the receptors to the optic nerve includes which cell types? bipolar and ganglion.
Created by: heartxshpedxbox3 on 2010-11-11



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