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Humn exam IV

Define Caesarpapist lead both the church and state including appointed high church offices
What is Islams basic creed/saying "There is no God but Allah & Muhammad is his prophet"
What are the 5 pillars of the Islamic faith? 1) confession 2) Prayer 3) Alms giving 4) fast of Ramadan 5) Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca)
Cyril & Methodius 2 missionaries sent to Slavic peoples by Emperor Michael III & Russian embrace Greek Christianity development of Greek alphabet
Mecca Islam's holiest city
Charles Martel Frankish King who defeated Muslims at Tours effect stopped the spread of Islam to Europe
caliphs meaning "successor to the prophet" given to Muslim rulers who combined political authority with religious power
jihad Islamic holy war in which believers feel they have the authority to fight & defend the faith
hijra Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622 BC
syllabic syllable allotted to each note
melismatic each single syllable prolonged over many notes
narthex vestibule entrance
nave a centeral area for congregation to assemble
apse framed the altar & provided seats for clergy, semicircular extended from interior space
transept "arms" set at right angles to the nave & an area that functions as a 2nd nave
Beowulf typical epic hero that he is biger than life superhuman character of cultural significance
Hrothgar King of the Danes whose hall is attacked by Grendel
Hygelac Beowulf's uncle King of Geatland earlier
Wiglaf bravest warrior who helps Beowulf fight the Dragon
Unferth Dane who taunts Beowulf then later lends him his sword, Hrunting, to fight Grendel's mother
Alciun of York scholar attracted to the cour of Charlemagne & led in renewal of learning as well as attracting other scholars to the court.
trivium grammar, rhetoric, & logic
quadrivium arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy
trivium & quadrivium make up.... the curriculum for medieval universities. these they saw these subjects as the patterns by which organized the world.
common law unwritten traditional practice rather than some form of legislation
statutory law law that results from some form of legislation & hence becomes recorded
Cluny monestary that had the Cluniac Reform which included persuading Duke William to write a charter putting them under the direct subordinate to the pope thus no civil authority
Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne's empire among his 3 grandsons-Charles the Bald, Lothair I, & Louis the German-immediately starting a civil war
What are the main principles in Germain law? compurgation, ordeal, wergeld
compurgation 12 honorable men would be given to testify to the good character of the accused w/out consideration to the charges. similar to modern juriprudence
ordeal accused given opportunity to test his innocence w/ extraordinary act like picking up a hot iron if no significant burn sign of innocence
wergeld * most important for regulation in violence * system of compensation based on the worth of a man hence meaning "wergeld"="man gold"
missi dominici traveling agents who represented the emperor in various territories. they reinforced his presence and power."envoys of the lord (ruler)"
hierarchy in both feudal society & the medieval church it describes the structured system of rank of one person above or below another
fief in the feudal system the portion--usually land--given by the lords to vassals to provide for their maintenance in return for their service
Liege Lord in feudal system a lord who has many vassals but owes allegiance to no one
vassal a noble who binds himself to his lord in return for maintenance also in the feudal system
commune a medieval or early modern town
Roger Bacon he & his teacher, Grossetestes, developed an early form of the scientific method by emphasizing the vale of experimentation over pure logic. one contribution was optics when he discovered to make glasses by grinding lenses.
Hanseatic League in the late 13th century many cities in Northern Germany created this association that united to capitalize on the prosperous northern trade
Hildegard of Bingen a medieval abbess & mystic who is remembered for her writings on woman's health & medicine & for her sublime music
witengemot nobles in capacity as advisers formed a council called this
guild like modern day unions. craftsmen who banded together to protect the interests of their particular crafts. might set standards of quality, prices, & system of training new works.
Averroes (Latin name= Ahmad Ibn Rushd) a Muslim scholar who did extensive studies & writing on Aristotle
Maimonides Jewish scholar who did extensive studies & writing on Aristotle
Eleanor of Aquitaine 1st married to the King of France & later married to England's Henry II, brought her considerable holdings in France under English control
Battle of Hastings Norman king, William, defeated the Anglo-Saxson king, Harold Godwinson
King John youngest brother of Richard the Lion Hearted and who became King & Richards death. His misrule led to his being forced to sign the Magna Carta
the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim rule
Santiago de Compostela St James of the Starry Field is the pilgrim church supposedly containing the bones of James the Elder
Otto I took the title emperor in his effort to restor the Carolingian empire. As a successful warrior & one who fostered learning in his court, he did resemble Charlemagne. Received the crown of Roman emperor from Pop John XII
Frederick I Barbarossa came close to establishing a consolidated German empire, but once again we have a case of where incessant wars drained the wealth of the kingdom
Fredrick II effectively ended any chance of a unified German monarchy because of his fascination for the complex culture of Sicily rather than ruling Germany
Estates General representative body created by Philip IV. representatives from those who prayed, fought, & worked,met separately hence 3 bodies
jongleur a minstrel or singing actor
chanson de geste song of deeds such as the Song of Roland a action story in poetic form from tales
troubadour French musicians of noble lineage who composed & sang secular songs
minnesinger German equivalent of a jongleur. "minne" German for love
mysticism symbolism
Geats people from S Sweden & who Beowulf belongs
Danes Christians who Beowulf rescues
Heorot mead hall of the Danish King that stood empty for 12yrs because of Grendel
Cluny located in France & was the site of Cluny Abbey that developed into a major cultural center
Bay rectangular space that has been vaulted by intersecting arches
Ribboned barrel vault intersection of 2 or 3 barrel vaults produces a ribbed vault when they are edged with a armature of piped masonry
archivolt molding that frames an arch such as tympanum
scriptorium medieval monastery the work room for copying & illuminating manuscripts
illuminated manuscripts pg of book or manuscripts that has been highly decorated with designs & pics
ambulatory covered passage for walking found around the apse of a church
Nicholas II 1st pope condemned layinvestiture defined the prinicples of the pope
lay investiture popes disapproved of a lay person giving a churchmen the symbols of spiritual offices because it appeared that the ruler was the source of spiritual authority
Concordat of Worms (pronounced Vorms cuz German) a compromise in investiture controversy by Henry V pope acknowledged as having authority to present how bishops with symbol of office
Thomas Becket wanted to preserve the church's right to be exempt from legal authority
mendicant orders members of a religious order such as Dominicans & Franciscans who wandereded from city to city begging for alms rather than residing in a monastery
Inocent III pope who exert leadership over princes of Europe
4th Laterman Council met in 1215 identified the 7 sacraments & reaffirmed their essential role in reaching salvation/heaven
Urban II pope called people to the Holy Land
Inquisition religious court establish in 13th century to root out heresy by questioning
Saladin hated the templars, Muslim leader who led recapture of Jerusalem & had a humane attitude to inhabitants that crusaders before
Knights Templar (a must know Dr. Wetzel said it be a good 4pointer just fyi) followed monastic rules and serving God by fighting Muslims by guarding the Holy Land. they also served as bankers for those who were traveling to the Holy Land then their power grew too strong
7 Sacraments 1) Baptism (@ birth because of original sin) 2) Eucharist (communion) 3) confirmation 4) confession (absolution) 5) marriage 6) ordination (become Priest) 7) extreme unction
Created by: midnight1854