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266 test 3

history 266

ghazi muslim religious warriors
osman bey founder of ottoman dynasty.
ottoman seminomadic turks who migrated to northwestern anatolia in the 13th century
bursa ottoman capital, major commercial and intellectual center with inns, shops, schools, libraries, and mosques
2 forces ghazi recruits were organized into a light cavalry and a volunteer infantry
devshirme ottoman requirement of the christian population of the Balkans to contribute young boys to become slaves of the sultan. boys received training, learned turkish and converted to islam
janissaries christian boys who became ottoman soliders
Mehmed the conqueror captured and made constantinople the new ottoman capital. expanded the ottoman empire
Suleyman the magnificent promoted ottoman expansion in southwest asian and in europe. Ottomans also became a major naval power under him
Shah Ismail founder of safavid empire. Claimed he was the hidden imam, or an incarnation of allah
twelver shiism 12 imams(religious leaders), the 12th is in hiding and is believed to one day return to take power and spread his true religion.
qizilbash (red hats) safavid followers wore distinctive red hats with 12 pleats in memory of the 12 shiite imams
Battle of chaldiran sunni ottomans feared the shiite safavids would spread the safavid propaganda among the nomadic turks in their territory, ,so selim the grim persecuted all shiites in the ottoman empire
shah abbas the great revitalized the safavid empire. moved the capital to isfahan, encouraged trade, reformed the administrative and military institutions
Zahir al Din Muhammad known as babur (the tiger). a chaghatai turk, began the mughal empire
akbar baburs grandson, a brilliant and charismatic ruler. no-nonsense ruler, thoughtful, reflective man deeply interested in religion and philosophy. pursued religious tolerance
the divine faith focused attention on the emperor as a ruler common to all the religious, ethnic, and social groups on india (akbar)
aurangzeb mughal empire reached its greatest extent under him. devout muslim, ended religious toleration, taxed hindus to encourage conversion
kanun (laws) issued by suleyman the magnificent (ottoman)
Hurrem Sultana (Roxelana) a concubine suleyman the magnificent was infatuated with and elevated to the status of a legal wife, consulted her on policies and killed his eldest son for her
columbian exchange brought american crops the the islamic empires. introduced maize, potatoes, tomatoes, coffee and tobacco
portuguese goa center of a christian mission in india. akbar invited portuguese jesuits but declined to commit
dhimmi protected people. conquered peoples who did not convert to isla
13th century founder of the ottoman dynasty osman
16th century founder of the safavid dynasty shah ismael
mughal ruler who created a centralized administrative structure that included both hindus and muslims in position of power Akbar
effective safavid ruler who modernized the army and retook hormuz from the portuguese shah abbas
ruler who extended mughal rule into southern india but faced many challenges from his hindu subjects Aurangzeb
ottoman sultan, known to his subjects as "the lawgiver" who expanded his empire into central europe Suleyman the magnificent
17th century ruler who sponsored the creation of the peacock throne and the construction of the taj mahal, 2 symbols of the wealth of the mughal empire Shah Jahan
ottoman troops comprised of captive christian boys, raised in islam and devoted to the sultan janissaries
followers of twelver shiism qizilbash
ottoman sultan who conquered constinople and created a unified ottoman empire mehmed the conqueror
In their rise of power the Ottomans were aided by the ghazi, who were Muslim religious warriors.
The Ottoman military made use of A)gunpowder weapons. B)siege warfare. C)specially trained Janissary forces. D)armored cavalry. *E)All of the answers are correct.
Which of the following places did not come under the control of the Muslim Ottomans the Iranian plateau
Suleyman the Magnificent captured Belgrade and laid siege to the city of Vienna.
In his "Turkish Letters," the Hungarian diplomat Ghislain de Busbecq expresses concerns that Ottoman forces are hardier and more disciplined than European forces.
The Safavid Empire began with the reign of Shah Ismail, who claimed legitimacy to the throne by tracing his ancestry back to a Sufi religious leader
Twelver Shiism was a Muslim sect that claimed that Ismail was the "hidden" imam or even a reincarnation of Allah
At the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, the Sunni Ottomans defeated the Shiite Safavids.
Shah Abbas revitalized the Safavid regime by all of the following means except forging alliances with the Ottomans against Europeans.
The Mughal leader Babur originally invaded northern India in order to finance his military campaigns in Central Asia.
The reforms of Akbar included all the following except education and basic rights for Indian women.
The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb replaced many Hindu temples with mosques. B)required all nonbelievers to pay a special tax. C)extended Mughal authority into southern India. D)faced many rebellions and religious conflicts. *E)All of the answers are correct
Politically, all three of the Islamic states began as military states.
Foreign trade took hold primarily in the Safavid and the Ottoman empires
One persistent problem within all three empires was achieving a peaceful succession after the death of the emperor
Major trade commodities sought by European merchants from the Islamic empires included silks, carpets, and other crafts.
Which of the following would not be an example of religious toleration under Muslim rule? the jizya tax imposed by Aurangzeb
A major reason for the decline in the Islamic Empires was the refusal to accept new ideas and technologies from the West.
The Muslim resistance to new ideas and technologies by the eighteenth century is illustrated by A)the Ottoman ban on the printing press. B)the purchase of outmoded weapons from Europe. C)the banning of "impious" telescopes. D)reluctance of Muslims to travel abroad. *E)All of the answers are correct.
Created by: 510646766