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Chapter 10 Body Syst

cardiovascular, immune, and lymphatic systems and blood

angioma tumor composed of blood vessels
angiostenosis narrowing of a blood vessel
aortic stenosis narrowing pertaining to aorta (narrowing of the aortic valve)
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries
atherosclerosis hardening of the fatty plaque (deposited on the arterial wall
bradycardia condition of a slow heart (rate less than 60 beats per minute)
cardiodynia pain in the heart
cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscle
cardiovalvulitis inflammation of the valves of the heart (also known as valvulitis)
endocarditis inflammation of the inner (lining) of the heart (particularly heart valves)
ischemia deficiency of blood (flow)
myocarditis inflammation of the muscle of the heart
pericarditis inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart
phlebitis inflammation of the vein
polyarteritis inflammation of many (sites in the) arteries
tachycardia abnormal state of rapid heart (rate of more than 100 beats per min)
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein associated with a clot
hematoma tumor of blood (collection of blood resulting from a broken blood vessels)
multiple myeloma tumors of the bone marrow
pancytopenia abnormal reduction of all (blood) cells
thrombosis abnormal condition of a (blood) clot
thrombus (blod) clot (attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein)
lymphadenitis inflammation of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy disease of the lymph nodes (characterized by abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes associated with an infection or malignancy)
lymphoma tumor of lymphatic tissue
splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
thymoma tumor of the thymus gland
arrhythmia any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
arterial fibrillation (AFib) cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid, electrical impulses in the atria. It quivers instead of contracting leading to the ejection of reduced blood. Increased risk of clot. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and chronic atrial fibrillation
cardiac arrest sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation
cardiac tamponade acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity
coarctation of the aorta congenital cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta
congenital heart disease heart abnormality present at birth
congestive heart failure (CHF) inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen
coronary artery disease (CAD) also called heart failure. condition that reduces flow of blood through coronary arteries to the myocardium. most often caused by atherosclerosis
coronary occlusion obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atheroscleorsis. Coronary occlusion can lead to acute myocardial infarction.
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) thrombus in a deep vein of the body. Mostly in lower extremeties. clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
hypertensive heart disease (HHD) disorder of the heart brought about by persistent high blood pressure
intermittent claudication pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in occlusive artery disease
mitral valve stenosis a narrowing of the mitral valve from scaring usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
myocardial infarction (MI) death of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (heart attack)
peripheral arterial disease (PAD) disease of arteries other than those of the heart and the brain. Affects blood circulation (ex: raynauds). Most common symptom of peripheral atherosclerosis is intermittent claudation.
rheumatic heart disease damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever.
varicose veins distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities
anemia reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Anemia may be caused by blood loss or decreased in the production of increase in the destruction of red blood cells.
embolus blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation
hemophilia inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by dificiency of the coagulation factor VIII
leukemia malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow
Hodgkin Disease Malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually beginning in the cervical nodes
Infectious mononucleosis an acute infection caused by the Epstein Barr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. The disease affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted by saliva
angioplasty surgical repair of a blood vessel
atherectomy excision of fatty plaque (from blocked artery using a specialized catheter and a rotary cutter)
endarterectomy excision within the artery
pericardiocentesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the outer layer (pericardial sac) (used to treat cardiac tamponade)
phlebectomy excision of a vein
phlebotomy incision into a vein (to remove bood or to give blood or intravenous fluids)(also called venipuncture)
valvuloplasty surgical repair of a valve (cardiac or venous)
splenectomy excision of the spleen
splenopexy surgical fixation of the spleen
thymectomy excision of the thymus gland
aneurysmectomy surgical excision of an aneurysm
atrial fibrillation ablation a procedure in which abnormal cells that trigger atrial fibrillation are destroyed by using radiofrequency energy
cardiac pacemaker batter powered apparatus implanted under the skin with leads placed on the heart, or in the chamber of the heart
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries
coronary stent supportive scaffold device implanted in the coronary artery, used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy
embolectomy surgical removal of an embolus or clot (usually with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon beyond the clot, then pulling the balloon back to the incision and bringing the clot with it.
femoropopliteal bypass surgery to establish an alternate route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction
implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) a device implanted in the body that continuously monitors the heart rhythm. Delivers electric shock if life threatening arrythmias occur in order to bring it back to normal
intracoronary thrombolytic therapy an injection of an intravenous medication to dissolve blood clots in coronary (blood) vessels
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) "balloon angioplasty" balloon is passed through a blood vessel into a coronary artery to the area where plaque is formed. Inflation of balloon allows blood to pass more freely
bone marrow aspiration syringe is used to aspirate a sample of the liquid portion of the bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells
bone marrow biopsy needle puncture to obtain a sample of bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study, used to diagnose, stage, ad monitor disease and condition of the blood cells
bone marrow transplant infusion of normal bone marrow cells from a donor with matching cells and tissue to a recipient with a certain type of leukemia or anemia
angiography radiographic imaging of blood vessels (procedure named for the vessel to be studied
angioscope instrument used for visual examination of a blood vessel
angioscopy visual examination of a blood vessel
aortogram radiographic image of the aorta (after an injection of contrast medium)
arteriogram radiographic image of a vein (after an injection of contrast media)
venogram radiographic image of a vein (after an injection of contrast media_
venography radiographic imaging of a vein (after an injection of contrast medium)
echocardiogram (ECHO) record of the heart (structure and motion using sound (used to detect to detect valvular disease and elevate heart function)
electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) record of the electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiograph instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiography process of recording the electrical activity of the heart
digital subtraction angiography (DSA) a process of digital radiographic imaging of the blood vessels that "subtracts" or removes structures not being studied
dopple ultrasound study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels, used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities
exercise stress test test evaluating cardiac function during physical stress.Echocardiography is fast becoming the preferred choice of testing over electrocardiography.
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) nuclear medicine scan that visualizes the heart from several different angles. A tracer substance is injected intravenously. It is used to assess damage to cardiac tissue.
thallium test nuclear medicine test used to diagnose coronary artery disease and assess revascularization after coronary artery bypass surgery. Thallium is a radioactive isotope that is not taken up by ischemia or infarction that care considered "cold spots"
transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) an ultrasound test that examines cardiac function and structure by using an ultrasound probe placed in the esophagus, which provides views of the heart structures
cardiac catheterization coronary angiography...a catheter is passed into the heart through a blood vessel and is used to record pressires and inject a contrast medium, enabling vizualization of the coronary arteries, great vessels, and the heart chambers. Evaluates chest pain
impedence plethysmography (IPG) measures venous flow of the extremeties with a plethysmograph to detect clots by measuring changes in blood volume and resistance (impedence) in the vein; used to detect deep vein thrombosis
auscultation hearing sounds within the body through a stethescope
blood pressure (BP) pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls
percussion tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath
pulse the number of times per minute the heartbeat is felt on the arterial wall. The pulse rate is most commonly felt over the redial artery however the puslation can be felt over a number od sidts
sphygmomanometer device used for measuring blood pressure
stethoscope an instrument used to hear internal body sounds, used for performing auscultation and blood pressure measurement.
C-Reactive protein (CRP) blood test to measure the mount of C-reactive protein in the blood - when elevated it indicates inflammation in the body - sometimes used for cardiovascular disease
creatine phosphokinase (CPK) blood test used to measure the level of CPK usually released into blood after muscle injury or necrosis. Useful when evaluating for myocardial infarction
homocysteine blood test used to measure the amount of Homocysteine. This is an amino acid that when elevated indicates increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
lipid profile blood test used to measure the amount of lipids in a sample of blood. This test is used to evaluate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and to monitor therapy of existing disease. Results give cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, and triglycerides
troponin Blood test to measure levels. Its a heart muscle enzyme released into the blood 3 hours after necrosis of heart muscle and may remain elevated up to 7-10 days. Test useful for myocardial infarction
coagulation time blood test to determine the time it takes for blood to form a clot
complete blood count (CBC) and differential count (Diff) blood screening measuring hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC #, and morphology, leukocyte count, WBC, and platelet count.
hematocrit (HCT) measures the volume and number of RBC's. Used in the diagnosis and evaluation of anemic patients
hemoglobin (Hgb) determines the concentration of hemoglobin in RBCs
prothrombin time (PT) determines coagulation activity defects and monitors anticoagulation therapy for patients taking Coumadin and heparin.
antrioventricular (AV) pertaining to the atrium and ventricle
cardiac pertaining to the heart
cardiogenic originating in the heart
cardiologist physician who studies and treats conditions of the heart
cardiology study of teh heart dealing with diseases and blood vessels
hypothermia condition of the body when it is below normal, sometimes used for procedures like bypass surgery
intravenous (IV) pertaining to within the vein
phlebologist physician who studies and treats diseases of the veins
phlebology study of the veins
hematologist physician who studies the blood
hematology study of the blood
hematopoiesis formation of the blood
hemolysis dissolution of red blood cells
hemostasis stoppage of bleeding
myelopoiesis formation of bone marrow
plasmapheresis removal of plasma (from withdrawn blood)
thrombolysis dissolution of a clot
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emergency procedure consisting of artificial ventilation and external cardiac massage
defibrillation application of an electric shock to the myocardium through teh chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm
diastole phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventircles relax between contractions
extracorporeal occuring outside the body. During open heart surgery extracorporeal circulation occurs when blood is diverted outside the body to a heart-lung machine
extravasation escape of blood from the blood vessel into the tissue
fibrillation rapid, quivering, non coordinated contractions of the atria and ventricles
heart murmur short duration humming sound of cardiac or vascular origin
hypercholesterolemia excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood, associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular disease
hyperlipidemia exessive amount of fats in the blood
hypertension blood pressure that is above normal (140/90)
hypertriglyceridemia excessive amount of triglycerides in the blood - increase in cardiovascular disease
hypotension blood pressure that is below normal (less then 90/60)
lipids fats
lumen space within a tubular part or organ such as the space within a blood vessel
occlude to close tightly, to block
systole phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract
vasoconstrictor agent or nerve that narrows the blood vessels
vasodilators agent or nerve that enlarges the blood vessels
venipuncture puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication or start an intravenous infusion
anticoagulant agent that slows the clotting process
dyscrasia abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood
hemorrhage rapid loss of blood as in bleeding
allergen environmental substance capable of producing immediate hypersensitivity in the body
allergist physician who studies and treats allergic conditions
anaphylaxis (anaphylactic shock) an exaggerated, life-threatening reaction to a previously encountered antigen (bees, peanuts, latex) can lead to death within minutes...hives, drop in BP, airway blockage
antibiotic drug that targets microorganisms to kill or halt growth or replication
antibodies substance produced by lymphcytes that inactivates or destroys antigens (immunoglobulins)
antigen substance that triggers an immune response when introduced into the body. (toxins, infectious organisms)
autoimmune disease disease caused by the body's inability to distinguish its own cells from foreign bodies, producing antibodies that attack its own tissue. Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus
immune eing resistant to specific invading pathogens
immunodeficiency deficient immune response caused by the immune system dysfunction brought on by disease (HIV) or immunosuppressive drugs (prednisone)
immunologist physician who studies and treats immune system disorders
immunology branch of medicine dealing with immune system disorders
infection invasion of pathogens in body tissue. May remain localized but may become systemic.
phagocytosis process in which some of teh white blood cells destroy the invading microorganisms and old cells
vaccine suspension of inactivated microorganisms administered by injection, mouth, or nasal spray to prevent infectious diseases by inducing immunity