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geo 266 test 3

sub saharan africa

dominant religion in north africa and the countries of the sahel ISLAM
dominant religion in southern nigeria, uganda, lesotho, and parts of south africa christian
religion in rural northern nigeria and tanzania muslim
triangular slave trade europeans carried guns, ammunition, rum and man. goods to w. africa in exchange for slaves. took slaves to americas, exchanged for gold, silver, tobacco, sugar, cotton, rum and too to europe
negative impacts of european colonialism marginalization of subsitence farmers displacing from good soils to inferior land.. use of indigenous labor to build railways taking a toll in human lives, corrupted political organization
positive effects of colonialism new cities and transport links, new medical and educational facilites, new crops and better ag. techniques, emplyment and income, new govnt. institutions.
mistake of 1914 british cartographers created the country despite its ethnic rifts. many modern national boundaries do not correspond to indigenous political or ethnic boundaries.
Cash crops coffee, cotton, cloves
reasons for malnutrition rapid population growth and drought, investing more in the military than citizens, excessive dependence on cash crops
the curse of africa crops and livestock that arent native to the country are ruining it. corn requires a lot of water, and cattle overgraze.
game ranching antelopes, zebras, warthogs, ostriches, crocodiles, pythons are bred in semicaptive and captive conditions to be slaughtered for their meat, hides and other useful products
micro credit lending of small sums to poor people to set up or expand small businesses
kimberley process un backed certification plan, designed to ensure only legally mined rough diamonds, untainted by violence reach the market.
kimberly process rough diamonds must be sent in tamper proof containers with a certificate, importing countries must certify the shipments have arrived unopened and reject any shipments that do not meet the requirements
the african growth and opportunity act passed by the u.s. congress in 2000, reduced or ended tariffs and quotas on more than 1800 manufactured, mineral and food iterms that could be imported from africa
heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) 14 african countries were forgiven of more than 40 billion dollars of debt the owed. this was done by the G-8 (7 biggest western economic powers and russia)
african development band (afdb) china pledged 20 billion in infrastructure and trade financing.
2 factors that shifted africas debt, trade and aid Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and African Development Bandk (AfDB)
failed state syndrome a pernicious process of economic and political decay that is eating away at countries including congo, ivory coast, somalia, and zimbabwe
shell state appears to have all the institutions of a country: a constitution, parliament, ministries, etc., but most of the positions are occupied by friends and family of the country's ruler
donor democracy the leaders make just enough concessions to win the aid without instituting real reform
African Union (AU) african institution to confront the problems of africa. implementing self inspection or peer review to promote democracy, good governance, human rights, gender equality, and development
Pan African Parliament created by the african union, 265 member parliament that will begin making regional laws by 2009
African standy Force takes orders from the organizations peace and security council. the force will field peacekeepers or peacemakers to ensure africa has fewer trouble spots
proxy wars during the cold war the soviet union and the u.s. played african countries against one another arming them with weapons to wage proxy wars
terrorism hot spots u.s. focus that are potential training grounds for al qaida. the u.s. have major military centers in the horn of africa. this has translated into military expenditures and partnerships with african governments
climate 2/3 of the region lies within the low latitudes and has tropical climates and vegetation. sub saharan africa has a great diversity of climate patterns and biomes
Population density relatively low population density overall, majority of the regions people live in a small number of densely populated areas
4 major language families niger-congo, afro asiatic, nilo saharan, and khoisan
Major faiths Islam and christianity, but indigenous belief systems are often mixed with them or exist on their own in some locales
Export crops coffee, cacao, cotton, peanuts, oil plam products
Reasons for hindering development frequent droughts, lack of education, poor transportation, and serious public health issues
conference of berlin in 1884 the french british, germans, belgians, portuguese, italians, and spanish established their respective spheres of influence in the region
the sahel climate ranges from desert in the north through belts of tropical steppe and dry savanna in the south
the sahel: farming the raising of sheep, goats, camels, and cattle, combined with subsistence farming is the major livelihood
the sahel: the resource curse Chads government promised the world band that almost all the oil revenues would be used to assist the country's poor or be set aside in a future generations fund but redirected the oil wealth away from the poor. the world band then froze all future loans
the albedo the amount of the suns energy flected by the ground
the charney effect when people and livestock reduced the vegetative cover they increased the albedo, and fewer plants meant more solar energy was deflected back into the atmosphere lowering humidity and reducing local precipitation
Charney effect a tragic sequence: people responding to drought actually perpetuated further drought conditions
The sahel: sustainable development ceasing the practice of clearing tress before planting crops and now protecting trees and growing crops under and between them. harvesting and selling usueful tree products, and tress are now private property owned by the state
The sahel: ethnic tension In mauritania the moors expelled black mauritanians across the border into senegal. Chads northern muslim cattle pastoralists and southern christian farmers dispute.
west africa climate ranging from tropical steppe, dry savanna, and wetter savanna to areas of tropical rain forest along the southern and southeastern coasts
west africa resources depend heavily on subsistence farming and lievestock grazing along with selected agricultural or mineral exports
major export of west africa cacoa, coffee, oil palm products in the wetter forested south, and peanuts and cotton in the drier north
main export industry of west africa mining.. most important: petroleum (6th largest oil exporter in the world)
Population of west africa 2/3 of the regions people live in one country: nigeria. only about 37 percent are city dwellers.
religion of west africa mostly muslim hausa and fulani mainly in the north (major religion), christian yoruba in the south west,
revolutionary united front (RUF) rebels that control almost two thirds of the country including all of the diamond producing area
Lome agreement gave the RUF some seats in the national cabinet
east africa mainly plateaus and mountains. volcanism . the climate and biome types are broadly tropical savanna
east africa : subsistence crops maize, millet, sorghum, sweet potatoes, plantains, beans, and manioc
leading exporter of east africa kenya, exporter of tea, and coffee
the east african community vowed to reduce trade barriers amongst its member states establishing a stock exchange, adopt a common currency for a unified market and elect a common president.
conflict in east africa ethnic rivalries and conflicts. warfare between the hutus and tutsis of rwanda and burundi in the 90's was the worst
South africa most dominant power, based on its industries and mineral wealth
the theory of island biogeography states that the number of species found on an individual island correlates with the islands area with a 10 fold increase in area normally resulting in a doubling of the number of species
apartheid laws imposed racially based restrictions and prohibitions on the entire population but weighed most heavily on black africans and denied them political power
economic crisis of zimbabwe president mugabe redistributed commercial farms owned by the white minority to blacks who were not farmers
Angola long civil war, fianlly has peace. important supplier of oil to the west
nelson mandela after elected president he ended apartheid and white conflict, and european political control.
kenya suffers from corruption that has prevented the long suspended resumption of significant foreign aid
Created by: 510646766