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Nervous system ch9

chabner ch9 words

Word definition
Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.
Afferent nerve Carries nervous impulses toward the brain and spinal cord; sensory nerve.
Akinetic Pertaining to loss or absence of voluntary movement.
Analgesia Absence of sensitivity to pain.
Anencephaly Congenital condition of partial or complete absence of brain matter.
Anesthesia Lack of feeling or sensation
Aphasia Inability to speak; language function is impaired due to injury to the cerebral cortex.
Apraxia Inability to perform purposeful acts or manipulate objects
Arachnoid membrane Middle layer of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord
Astrocyte Glial (neuroglial) cell that transports salts and water from capillaries
Ataxia Without coordination
Autonomic nervous system Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
Axon Microscopic fiber that carries a nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
Blood-brain barrier Blood vessels that let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
Bradykinesia Slow movement.
Brainstem Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.
Cauda equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
Causalgia Intensely unpleasant burning pain in a limb following damage to nerves.
Cell body Part of the nerve cell (neuron) that contains the nucleus.
Central nervous system Brain and spinal cord.
Cephalgia Head pain; headache
Cerebellar Pertaining to the cerebellum
Cerebellopontine Pertaining to the cerebellum and pons.
Cerebellum Part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
Cerebral cortex Outer region of the cerebrum.
Cerebrospinal fluid Clear, watery fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought and memory, among other functions.
Coma State of unconsciousness from which a patient cannot be aroused.
Comatose Pertaining to a coma.
Cranial nerves Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain.
Dendrite Microscopic branching portion of a nerve cell; first part of the nerve cell to receive the nervous impulse.
Dura mater Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Dyskinesia Impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements.
Dyslexia Difficulty in reading, writing, and learning
Efferent nerve Carries messages away from the brain the spinal cord; motor nerve.
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain.
Encephalopathy Disease of the brain
Ependymal cell A glial cell that lines the membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid.
Epidural hematoma Collection of blood located above the dura mater
Ganglion Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system; plural is ganglia.
Glial cell Nervous system cell that is supportive and connective in function: Astrocyte, microglial cell, ependymal cell.
Glioblastoma Rapidly growing malignant tumor of the brain.
Gyrus, gyri Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum.
Hemiparesis Slight paralysis of the right or left half of the body
Hemiplegia Paralysis of the right or left half of the body
Hypalgesia Diminished sensitivity to pain.
Hyperesthesia Excessive sensitivity or feeling, especially of the skin in response to touch or pain.
Hyperkinesis Excessive movement
Hypothalamus Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
Intrathecal Pertaining to within the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Leptomeningeal Pertaining to the two thinner membranes (arachnoid membrane and pia mater) surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Medulla oblongata Lower part of the brain, closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing heartbeat, and size of blood vessels.
Meningeal Pertaining to the meninges
Meninges Three membranes surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
Meningioma Tumor (benign) of the meninges
Microglial cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system.
Motor nerve Carries impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles.
Myelin sheath Fatty, white covering over the axon of a nerve cell.
Myelogram X-ray record (with contrast) of the spinal cord
Myelomeningocele Congenital hernia (protrusion) of the spinal cord and meninges through a defect (gap) in the vertebral column. This defect is often associated with spina bifida.
Myoneural Pertaining to muscle and nerve.
Narcolepsy Sudden seizures of sleep
Nerve Macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses.
Neuralgia Nerve pain
Neurasthenia Lack of strength in nerves; a feeling of weakness and exhaustion
Neuroglia Supporting cells (stroma) of the nervous system; glial cells.
Neuron Nerve cell
Neuropathy Disease of nerves; primarily in the peripheral nervous system.
Neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell.
Oligodendroglial cell Glial (neuroglial) cell that forms the myelin sheath covering the axon of a neuron.
Paraplegia Paralysis of the lower part of the body and both legs.
Parasympathetic nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions, such as heart rate, breathing, and the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
Parenchyma Essential, functioning cells of any organ. Neurons (nerve cells) are the parenchyma of the nervous system.
Paresis Slight paralysis
Paresthesia Abnormal nervous sensation occurring without apparent cause. Examples are tingling, numbness or prickling sensations.
Peripheral nervous system Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
Pia mater Thin, delicate, innermost membrane of the meninges.
Plexus Network of nerves outside of the central nervous system; brachial, cervical, lumbosacral plexuses are examples.
Poliomyelitis Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
Polyneuritis Inflammation of many nerves
Pons Part of the brainstem anterior to the cerebellum, between the medulla and the rest of the brain. The pons connects the upper and lower portions of the brain.
Quadriplegia Paralysis of all four limbs; both arms and both legs
Radiculitis Inflammation of a spinal nerve root.
Radiculopathy Disease of a spinal nerve root
Receptor Organ that receives nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves that carry the stimulation to the brain and spinal cord; skin, ears, eyes and taste buds
Sciatic nerve Extends from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain along the course of the nerve
Sensory nerve Carries messages to the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve
Spinal nerves Thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve affects a particular area of the skin.
Stimulus Agent of change (light, sound, touch) that evokes a response.
Stroma Connective and supportive tissue of an organ.
Subdural hematoma Collection of blood in the space below the dura mater surrounding the brain.
Sulcus, sulci Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure.
Sympathetic nerves Autonomic nerves that activate responses in times of stress; heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure are affected.
Synapse Space between nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscle and glandular cells.
Syncopal Pertaining to syncope (fainting).
Syncope Fainting; temporary loss of consciousness.
Thalamic Pertaining to the thalamus
Thalamus Main relay center of the brain; located in the central region or diencephalon of the brain.
Trigeminal neuralgia Flashes of stab like pain along the course of a branch of the trigeminal nerve (5th cranial nerve). The trigeminal nerve has branches to the eye, upper jaw and lower jaw
Vagal Pertaining to the vagus nerve
Vagus nerve Tenth cranial nerve with branches to the chest and abdominal organs
Ventricles of the brain Fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) filled canals in the brain.
Created by: jcooper