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Muscle Tissue Exam

The response of a muscle to a single threshold stimulus. Simple muscle twitch.
Name the 3 phases of the single muscle twitch. 1. latent 2. contraction 3. relaxation
What causes the myosin heads to be released from the actin active sites? The addition of ATP
What causes the myosin heads to "recock" back to their high-energy position? The hydrolysis of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) splits to become ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate)+ P + energy.
Ach is contained in the ___________. Synaptic vesicles.
Action potential moving down the axon causes the ______________ to open. Calcium Ion (Ca++) channels
What causes the synaptic vessicles to move to the bottom of the axon terminus? The influx of Ca++ in the axon
The space between the axon terminus and the motor end plate is the ____________. Synaptic cleft
A nerve cell whic stimulates or innervates a muscle. Motor neuron
What stops the action potential along the sarcolemma? An enzyme at the motor end plate called acetylcholinesterate (AchE)hydrolyzes the Ach, stopping the action potential down the sarolemma and t-tubules. This means that the SR doesn't release Ca++ into the sarcoplasm.
What would happen if AchE was inhibited? The muscles could not relax - they would be in a constant state of contraction.
What would happen if an Ach receptor was blocked? The muscle would not contract. ex) Botox
The light part of muscle striations I-band
The dark part of muscle striations A-band
rod-shaped organelle responsible for contraction that is composed of sarcomeres joined end-to-ed Myofibril
A bundle of muscle fibers is called a _________ and is wrapped in a connective tissue called __________. Fascicle/Perimysium
The ___________, _____________, and ___________ combine at the end of a skeletal muscle to form tendon. epimysium / perimysium / endomysium (connective tissues)
Name the 3 main functions of skeletal muscles: 1) Movement 2) Generate heat 3) Stabilize joints
What causes the appearance of striations in muscles? The presence of alternating A-bands and I-bands.
What is the equation for the hydrolysis of ATP? ATP + H20 --> ADP + P + energy
The period between the introduction of stimulus and the beginning of the contraction phase: Latent period
A motor neuron and all the muscle fiber it innervates (stimulates): Motor Unit
The smooth, but steady increase in muscular tension produced by increasing the number of active motor units: Recruitment
Small motor units produce __________ contractions, with __________ movements. weaker / fine, more precise
Large motor units produce __________ contractions, with ___________ movements. stronger / gross, less precise motor
The resting tension in a skeletal muscle - Random, asynchronous motor unit contractions providing a nearly constant state of low-level tension and resistance to stretch: Muscle Tone
A function of muscle tone: stabilizing the positions of bones and joints.
What produces tension? Sarcomere shortening and muscle fiber stimulation.
Describe what is happening during the Latent Period: Action potential development, Ca++ released into the sarcoplasm, cross-bridges begin to cycle.
Describe what is happening during the Period of Contraction: Sarcomeres shorten (speed of contraction depends on weight being lifted and muscle type)
Describe what is happening during the Period of Relaxation: Ca++ transported back to sarcoplasmic reticulum, cross-bridge cycle decreases and ends, tension is reduced and muscle returns to original length.
Name the 3 factores which affect muscle tension: 1) Frequency of stimulation 2) Number of motor units recruited 3) Degree of muscle stretch
When a 2nd stimulus arrives before the relaxation phase has ended, a second, more powerful contraction occurs. This is called the ______________. Temporal (wave) summation
The gradual increase in muscular contraction following rapidly repeated simulation. Treppe (German for staircase)
A muscle producing almost peak tension during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation. During this phase, there is still some degree of relaxtation present. Incomplete (unfused) tetanus
Higher stimulation frequency completely eliminates the relaxation phase. Reason: the SR does not have time to reclain the Ca++ in the sarcoplasm. The abundance of Ca++ keeps the cross-bridge cycle going. (flat line on graph) Complete (fused) tetanus
Condition that results from build-up of lactic acid, lack of ATP, and ionic imbalances due to action potential generation. (slope downward on graph) Muscle fatigue
How do you correct muscle fatigue? Rest and adequate blood supply.
A stimulus that does not evoke a visible response. The number of motor units responding is not sufficient to cause a visible response. Subthreshold stimulus
The minimum stimulus that can evoke a response Threshold stimulus
A stronger response than threshold because additional motoe units join in to increase in tension. Recruitment
When all motor units are being recruited and more intense stimulus does not evoke a greater response. Maximal stimulus
The Length-Tension Relationship states that the strength of a muscle __________ can be altered by changing the starting _________ of a muscle. contraction / length
Unstretched muscle has overlapping ___________, and produces a relatively _________ contraction. thin filaments (or actin) / weak
What degree of stretch provides the best conditions for good contraction? Moderately stretched muscle. FYI: the filaments are aligned such that all the crossbridges can participate in contraction.
Thin filaments pulled almost to the ends of thick filaments, so little tention can be developed. Results in straining, tearing, or pulling a muscle. Over stretched muscle
Glycolysis takes place exclusively within the ________. cytoplasm
Glycolysis does not require __________. oxygen
How many molecules of ATP does glycolysis produce? 2
Glycolysis produces __ pyruvate molecules. After glycolysis, each pyruvate molecule enters the __________ single file. 2 / mitochondria
The ______ _______ turns once per pyruvate molecule. Therefore, 1 glucose molecule = 2 ______ _______ turns. Kreb's cycle / Kreb's cycle
2 Kreb's cycle turns produces __ ATP molecules 2
What is the Kreb's cycle's most important function? Hydrogen harvesting
________is the final acceptors in the electron transport chain. Oxygen
The majority of ATP produced by aerobic respiration is produced here: Electron transport chain (32-34 ATP, when starting with 1 glucose molecule)
Name 3 products of the Kreb's cycle: Carbon dioxide (CO2), Hydrogen, and 2 ATP molecules.
The Hydrogen molecules produced by the Kreb's cycle are each made up of 1 _______ and 1 _________. proton / electron
At each step down the ETC, the ________ loses _______. electron / energy
If O2 is present, muscles prefer to burn ________ for energy. fatty acids
Name the products of fermenation (anaerobic respiration) 2 ATP per 1 glucose molecule; lactic acid, which is released into the blood
What is the equation for direct phosphorylation? 1 molecule of Creatine Phosphate + ADP --> 1 molecule of ATP + creatine
Duration of energy provision for aerobic respiration: Hours
Duration of energy provision for anaerobic respiration (fermentation): 30-60 seconds
Duration of energy provision for direct phosphorylation? 15 seconds
Aerobic respiration produces _________ water. metabolic
Creatine phosphate is stored in the _______ ______. muscle cells
Do have a high or low myoglobin content? high
The primary pathway for ATP production in red slow twitch fibers is: Aerobic respiration
The primary pathway for ATP production in white fast twitch muscle fiber is: Anaerobic (fermentation) glycolysis.
Do have high or low glycogen stores? Low (their primary fuel is fat - remember: if O2 is present after glycolysis, muscles preferable fuel for ATP production is FATTY ACID)
Do white fast twitch fibers have high or low glycogen stores? High. (their primary fuel for ATP production is glucose!!)
Are red slow twitch fibers fatigable or fatigue-resistant? Fatigue resistant. (which makes sense, since they primarily use aerobic respiration, which has an energy provision of "hours")
Are white fast twitch fibers fatigable or fatigue-resistant? fatigable (since they use fermentation, which has a very short enrgy provision of 30-60 seconds)
Which type of muscle fiber has many mitochondria? red slow twitch (which makes sense, since its primary method of energy production is aerobic.....which occurs in the mitochondria)
Which type of muscle fiber has few capillaries? white fast twitch (doesn't need as much oxygen, since uses fermentation!)
Best type of muscle fiber for endurance activities like running a marathon: red slow twitch
Best type of muscle fiber for intense, short, powerful movements (like hitting a baseball)? white fast twitch
A red pigment found in muscles, which stores oxygen: myoglobin
Muscles that are attached to bones: Skeletal muscle
Make up the walls of hollow organs: Smooth muscle
Make up the heart: Cardiac muscle
This type of muscle is striated and multinucleated: Skeletal muscle
Which muscle types are striated? Skeletal muscle and Cardiac muscle
Which muscle types are nonstriated? just one: Smooth muscle
Which muscle types are uninucleated? Smooth muscle and Cardiac muscle (cardiac muscle is TYPICALLY uninucleated)
Which muscle type contains intercalated discs? Cardiac muscle. Typically, only one nucleus is found between two intercalated discs.
Which muscle types are involuntary? Smooth muscle and Cardiac muscle
Does skeletal muscle have large or small cells? Large
Does smooth muscle have large or small cells? Small
Does cardiac muscle have large or small cells? Large
The slow-contracting muscle type: Smooth muscle
The fast-contracting muscle type: Skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle's speed of contraction is: Moderate
__________ muscles cannot divide. Skeletal
Cardiac muscles have a _________ capacity for division. limited
Smooth muscles have a _________ capacity for division. limited
__________ muscle has a larger capacity for regeneration than the other 2 muscle types. Smooth muscle
Which muscle types contain sarcomeres? Skeletal muscle and Cardiac muscle (which makes sense, since they are the two that are striated)
Created by: taranorwood