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Earth Science

QuestionAnswer
What is the first most prevalent element in the Earth's crust? Oxygen
What is the second most prevalent element in the Earth's crust? Silicon
What is the third most prevalent element in the Earth's crust? Aluminum
What is the fourth most prevalent element in the Earth's crust? Iron
What is the fifth most prevalent element in the Earth's crust? Calcium
Who invented the hardness scale? Friedrich Mohs
What mineral is number one on the hardness scale? Talc
What mineral is number two on the hardness scale? Gypsum
What mineral is number three on the hardness scale? Calcite
What mineral is number four on the hardness scale? Fluorite
What mineral is number five on the hardness scale? Apatite
What mineral is number six on the hardness scale? Feldspar
What mineral is number seven on the hardness scale? Quartz
What mineral is number eight on the hardness scale? Topaz
What mineral is number nine on the hardness scale? Corundum
What mineral is number ten on the hardness scale? Diamond
What ore(s) yields iron? Bauxite
What ore(s) yields zinc? Sphalerite
What ore(s) yields copper? Chalcopyrite, malachite, azurite
What ore(s) yields titanium? Ilmenite, rutite
What kind of rocks are formed when magma cools? Igneous rocks
What kind of rocks are formed when fragments of rocks, minerals or organic materials are compacted and cemented together? Sedimentary rocks
What kind of rocks are formed by an increase in heat and pressure? Metamorphic rocks
For igneous rocks, what are they called when the magma cools at or near Earth's surface? Extrusive
For igneous rocks, what are they called when the magma cools below Earth's surface? Intrusive
What kind of igneous rocks are dense, heavy and dark-colored? Basaltic
What kind of igneous rocks are light-colored and less dense than basalts? Granitic
What kind of igneous rocks are the intermediary between Basaltic and Granitic? Andesitic
What are metamorphic rocks classified as if banding is visible? Foliated
What are metamorphic rocks classified as if banding is not visible? Nonfoliated
Name three types of sedimentary rocks Detrital, chemical and organic
Name the four types of mountains Folded, upwarped, fault-block and volcanic
What is the decayed organic material in soil called? Humus
What is each layer in soil called? A horizon
What is the name for the process of removing soil materials dissolved in water? Leaching
What is the final stage of the erosional process called? (the dropping of sediment) Deposition
Which type of erosion occurs when gravity alone moves materials downslope? Mass movement
What is the name for a mass movement that happens when loose materials or rock layers slip down a slope? A slump
What is the name for mass movement when sediments slowly inch their way down a hill? Creep
What is the name for mass movement in which large blocks of material break loose and tumble down a hill? A slide
A thick mixture of sediments and water flowing down a slope is called what? A (mud)flow
What is the process of a glacial ice sheet lifting out rock pieces called? Plucking
What is the name for the sediments left behind by a slowing glacier? Till
What is the name for the ridge left behind by a glacier? A moraine
What is it called when wind erodes by blowing across loose sediments, leaving coarse material behind? Deflation
When loose sediments dislodged by wind strike rock, what is the subsequent erosion called? Abrasion
When water forms a scar or small channel along a slope, what type of erosion is this? Rill
When a rill channel becomes broader and broader, what type of erosion is this? Gully
What type of erosion occurs when rainwater flows into lower elevations, carrying sediment? Sheet
What type of erosion occurs when water in a stream picks up sediment and carries it away? Stream
What is the name for a layer of permeable rock that transmits water freely? Aquifer
What type of well doesn't need a pump to bring water to the surface? Artesian
What is process of making coal? 1) Peat 2) Lignite 3) Bituminous coal 4) Anthracite
What is accumulation of alluvium or eluvium containing valuable minerals which is formed by deposition of dense mineral phases in a trap site? Placer Deposits
What is alluvium? Soil or sediments deposited by a river or other running water
What is eluvium? Geological deposits and soils that are derived by in situ weathering or weathering plus gravitational movement or accumulation.
Created by: KubrickIsGod on 2003-02-14



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