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MTCES.8 -Sc.1.1.?

What are the building blocks of matter? Elements
What is the difference between compounds and mixtures? A compound is pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a specific ratio. IE:water A mixture is made up of two or more substances (elements or compounds) that are in the same vicinity but not chemically combined. IE: air
Who originally thought up the atomic theory? The ancient Greeks.
What was John Dalton's original atomic theory? *all atoms of the same element are the same *atoms of 1 element can't be changed into another *atoms can't be created or destroyed, only rearranged *smooth hard balls that can't be broken down
List each scientist and their contribution to the atomic theory. *John Dalton~orig. theory *JJ Thomson~- chrged part. in a + base *Ernest Rutherford~electrons orbit around a small + nucleus (gold foil exp) *Niels Bohr~electrons move in specific orbits *orbit in a cloudlike reigon depending on its energy level *neutrons
What are valence electrons? The electrons in an atom that have the highest energy level and are held most loosely. Number ranges from 1-8.
What is the electron dot diagram? A diagram that has the symbol of an element surrounded by dots. Each dot resembles one valence electron.
What makes an atom stable? A stable atom has 8 valence electrons, by itself, ionicly bonded, or covalently bonded
What can the periodic table tell you about an element? *atomic number (# of protons and neutrons) *Symbol *Atomic mass (protons + neutrons) *valence electrons *solid/liquid/gas *metal/nonmetal/metalloid
What are the sections of the periodic table? Periods go across, groups or families go down.
Which atoms want to get electrons? Which ones want to give them away? Atoms with 5+ valence electrons want to gain them (families 13-17) Atoms with 4- electrons want to lose them (families 1-12).
What are the parts of an atom? Electrons (-) and the nucleus, which is made up of protons (+) and neutrons ( )
What is an ion and how is it formed? An ion is an atom with an electric charge. When an atom loses an electron, it becomes positive. When it gains an electron, it becomes negative.
What is an ionic bond? The attraction between two oppositely charged ions. IE:Sodium Chloride (Na+Cl-)
What is an ionic compound? What are its properties? An ionic compound is a compound that consists of both positive and negative ions. They are very hard and fragile, have high melting points, and conduct electricity when liquid.
What is a covalent bond? The bond formed when two atoms share electrons. IE:Water (H2O)
What is a molecular compound? What are its properties? A molecular compound is a compond composed of molecules, has covalent bonds. They have low melting points and bad conductivity.
What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonds? Ionic bonds give and take electrons, covalent bonds share them.
What is the difference between ionic and molecular compounds? Ionic compounds are made of ions, ionicly combined. Molecular compounds are made of molecules, covalently combined. Ionic compounds have higher boiling points and conduct electricity better.
What is the difference between polar and nonpolar bonds? Nonpolar bonds have an equal pull in both directions, balancing it out. -+- (<-->) Polar bonds have a stronger pull at one end, making one part slightly negative and the other slightly positive. =+ (-->)
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