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ACE PT EXAM (3rd ed)

CHAPTER 1: Physiology

What is the body Fat Percentage of a fit man? 14 - 17%
What is the minimum duration and frequency of exercise sessions? 20 minutes and 3-4 times a week
what is the body fat percentage of a fit woman ? 21-24%
How many Calories must be burned to loose 1 pound? 3,500
What is the maxium O2 consumption for general fitness improvement? 50-80%
what is the maximum Heart Rate for General fitness Improvement? 60-90%
What is the upper limit max Heart Rate Reserve for submax bike ergonometer test 85%
According to the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction, what is the First step in the sequence of events? A nervous impulse from the central nervouse system
What is actin and myosin? Contractile proteins in the myofibrils
What is aerobic? it means with oxygen. the first system to produce ATP; dominate system when adequate oxygen is delivered to the cell to meet energy production needs. i.e: when mulsces is at rest; uses fatty acids and glucose to produce ATP; produces more than anaerobic b
What is the All or Nothing Principle? when a skeletal muscle is stimulated to contract it does so with maximaum force; cant grade contractile force like cardiac muscles can
WHat is Anaerobic It means without oxygen; when inadequate oxygen supply is available, anerobic glycolysis and creatine phosphate systems produce ATP; carbs/glucose 4 calories of energy per grams
What is an anaerobic threshhold? it is the point during high intensity exercise when the body can no longer meet its oxygen needs and switches to anaerobic metabolism; 50-80% maximum effort.
What is ATP? Adenosine Triphosphate; the body's energy source produce from fat, carbs (glucose) and some protein
What are the benefits of Cardiovascular FItness; THe heart spends more time in relaxation phase/diastole -- at rest or druing exercise
what are the benefits of aerobic exercise? it improves body composition; decreased apetite; burn calories, strengthen skeletal system; & increases insulin sensitvity
What is caffeine and its effects? It is a diuretic, it increases Heart Rate & may enhance endurance performane
what is cardiac output? heart reat (BPM) X stroke volume (amount of blood pumped from each ventrical with each heart beat
What are Cardiac, Smooth, & SKeletal? Types of muscle cells
What are the causes of muscular fatique 1. Power event 1 - 30 seconds: Depleted ATP 2. 30 minutes heavy exercise: Build up of lactic acid 3. 3 hour marathon: depleetion of glycogen stores
what are changes in cardiac output due to aerobic conditioning the ventricles hold more blood -the resting HR decreases-strove volume at rest increases--same cardiac output can be maintained at lower HR- increased mitichondrial density
What are the changes in O2 Extraction due to aerobic conditioning? more capillaries; more mitochondria & More activity of mitochondrial enzymes
what is contractile force? Golgi Tendon ORgans serve as a protective mechanism against excessive
What is the creatin phosphate system? a 2ndary source anaerobic ATP(to glycogen); high energy phosphate molecule store in cells;used to resynthesize ATP immediately; system of energy transfer for resynthesis of ATP; system of energy transfer for resynthesis of ATP w/o oxygen via breakdown of
What are the CV effects of a single exercise session? 1. Sytolic bp increase 2. diastolic bp no change or it decreases 3. blood flow to abdomen decreases (goes to the limbs) 4. periphia resistance in vasculary system decreases 5. ATP production increases
Whare are delayed onset muscle sorness? Small tears in the muscle
what is Diastole phase in which the heart refills
what is ejection fraction? % total blood volume remaining n ventricles @ the end of diastole that is subsequentlly ejected during contraction --- 50% @ rest and 100% during exercise
what are factors limiting flexibilty? 1. elastic limits ligaments & tendons; 2. muscle tissure elasticity 3. bone & joint structure; 4. the skin
What are the ACSM postive coronary risk factors? family history of heart disease, 200+ Cholesterol, cigarette smoking
what are fast twitch muscle fibers? fast speed of contraction & high capacity for anerobic glycolysis (e.g. sprinter, power lifter)
Formula to calculate VO2 Max? VO2 max (ml/kg/min or L O2/min) = cardiac output max X O2 extraction max
WHat are the basis of any exercise program developmenet Frequence Intensity Type and TIME
Glucose and Fatty acids are... Primary energy source for runner 45-60 min @ 65% VO2 max
what is Glycogen? Chain of glucose storied in muscle & liver; primary source of anaerobic ATP production
Golgi Tendon organ? tendon organ/part of the nervouse system protecting the muscle from too much contractile fource; causes muscles to Relax?
Characteristics of of slow -twitch Muscles fibers? They have a higher aerobic apacity than fast twitch fibers
hemoglobin? proteins that carries oxygen in the red blood cells
immediate muscles sorness is a result of what? lactic acid build up
what is the primary limiting factor to no longer be able to aerobically produce ATP? The Inability to extract O2 and use it at the muscle efficiently
What are the physiological effects of high altitude? increased cardiac output
ischemia? decreased bloodflow to the heart leading to insufficient oxygen to the hart and chest pain or angina
isokenetic? same speed; muscles generate maximum force through the entire range of motion while keeping the speed constant
isometric? same length; high intensity/maximal contraaction. i.e. pushing against an immovable object
isometric training? strength increases specific to joint angle where contraction occurs
isotonic? same tone or tension; given restistance challenged through entire range of motion i.e. biceps curl with dumbbell
Lactic Acid a byproduct of anaerobic ATP production
what is a karvonen formula error for client with over exertion during aerobics with/max HR within range Max Heart Rate/resting Heart rate too high
MET Metobolic equivalent: Resting VO2 Max of 3.5 mL/kg/min
MItochondria site of ATP producton in cells: THe more mitochondria the more aerobic energy production capability of the cell
Muscle Pump Rythmic squeezing of large muscles leg/butt against veins; increases blood supply/flow to from heart.
Muscle Spindle fibers in the muscle tissue protecting against too much stretching; causes to muscle to contract
primary limitation of producing ATP in the phosphagen system Muscle stores little CP and ATP
myofibrils? protein strands running the length of each muscle fiber
optimum exercise intensity for fitness improvement? 50-80% VO2 max which corresponds to 60 -90% maximum heart rate
Optimum Fitness? cardio endurance, muscular strength, Flexbility & Maintain ideal body weight?
what has the greatest influence on exercise performance? oxygen extraction
PHosphagens? creatine phospate & ATP; Muscle stores only enough to provid 10 seconds of max effort; in even well trained athletes.
how to reach anaerobic threshold? at 50-80% of maximal effort
what are the ACOG guidelines for pregnant women 2 & 3 trimesters regular exercise, modify intensity & avoid prolong supine positions
what are responses to aerobic training? 1. resting HR decreases 2. stroke volume at rest decreases 3. VO2 max increases 4. Max HR no change (based on age) 5. mitochondrial density in muscle increase 6. aerobic threashold increases 7. HR at submax intensity decreases
sacromeres: repeating units running the length of each muscle fiber
What aretwo factors that determine amount of force generated during contraction in the whole muscle Size of fibers contracting and Number of fibers contracting simultaneously
Sliding filament theory? 1. CNS sends nerves impulse; 2. Sufficient ATP near actin and myosin protein 3. myosin heads/filaments attach to actin to from cross bridge 4. myosin pulls actin to the center. 5 sacromere shortens/contraction occurs
slow twitch fibers ? slow speed of contraction & high capacity for aerobic glycolysis (e.g. maraton runner)
Training rules for Cardiovascular Fitness? 1. appropriate activit: rhythmic large muscle movements 2. freq: 3X weekly; 3. Duration: 10-20 min per session 4. intensity 50-80% VO2 Max
Typical cardiac output at rest? 60 bpm X 70 ml = 4, 200 ml/min or 1 gallon of blood per min
Sequence of blood flow throught the heart? Vena Calva, Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Pulmonary Valve, Pulmonary Arteries, Lungs, Pulmonary Veins, Left Atrium, Mitral Valve, Left ventrial, aorta:
VO2 Max? maximum oxygen consumption OR maximum aerobic capacity; total capacity of the body to consume oxygen at the cellular level.
Was to replenish ATP? aerobic system and anaerobic systems; anaerobic glycolysis and creatine phosphate.
Created by: kyfleming2