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Speech Development 4

Mid-term Study Guide

associative word learning? children associate pictures or objects with words that are used to describe them
two theories of linking meaning and words? prototype and developmental
prototype theory: taking an original movement or situation and using the describing word of the event to describe a similar motion or situation
developmental theory: first and second tier principles
first tier principle of developmental theory: Words stand for objects, actions, events, etc. (for example: "ball" for throw or field)
second tier principle of developmental theory: Children must use the words that other people use if they are going to communicate successfully.
categorical scope (2nd tier): Similar objects are grouped together. (ex: A dog and cat might both be called "dog")
object scope (1st tier): words refer to whole objects. (ex: dog refers to the whole animal, not the nose or tail individually)
First word factoids: -appear around 12 months -are usually nouns -the majority are learned by observation and NOT by direct instruction -represent the world the child is familiar with
Two strategies for learning first words: social (expressive: greetings, verbs) and things (referential: nouns, names)
Semantic categories: existence, nonexistence, recurrence, rejection, denial, attribution, possession, action, locative action
Denial: “no” to negate the content of a prior utterance
Rejection: “no” to oppose “an action or refuse an object . . .”
Recurrence: “more” to mean “I want another.”
Nonexistence: “no” to mean that an “entity is not present though expected.”
Existence: “here” meaning that the child is indicating that something exists.
Attribution: “hot” to describe a hot surface. Words that describe attributes of persons, objects, etc.
Possession: “mine” spoken while holding an object, as in “mommy” holding up mom’s shoe and meaning this is mom’s shoe.
Action: “open” while opening a box. This category describes actions or movements.
Locative action: “up” while getting out of a chair; action associated with change of location by person or object.
Semantic relations "doggie bed" meaning the dog's bed, or the dog is in bed, or the dog is tired...
Created by: deezer