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Transformational Grammar was developed most extensively by (E) Noam Chomsky
A mnemonic device is best described as a (A) strategy for remembering something
The term "countertransference" is most likely to be encountered in descriptions of (B) psychoanalysis
In a psychoanalytic case study, Gus is described as being "angry with his father, but taking it out on his little brother." According to psychoanalytic theory, Gus is most likely displaying which defense mechanisms? (C) Displacement
Systematic desensitization is most useful in treating (E) Phobias
An observer looks directly at an object under a low level of illumination and the object is not seen. However, when the observer's eyes are shifted slightly so that the object is in peripheral vision, the object becomes more visible because (A) the rods are more sensitive to light than are the cones
The Condition that produces inhibition at a synapse is called (E)Hyperpolarization
Gender comparisons of children show that the greatest difference between girls and boys of preschool age can be found in which stage (C)Play patterns
According to protection motivation theory, an appeal to fear would facilitate attitude change except when the target (E)is convinced that the danger is inevitable
Social Psychologists usually define an attitude as (A) a positive, neutral, or negative evaluation of a person, issue or object.
According to Elaine Hatfield and some other theorists, love that is based on mutual respect, trust and commitment, is often characterized in the later stages of romantic relationships is (B) Companionate Love
People who are rewarded with material objects for doing a task they like may subsequently show decreased interest in the task. The phenomenon has been especially relevant for research on (D) Intrinsic Motivation
Self-esteem is most likely to be enhanced when one attributes one's success to (E) Internal Causes
Tuesday was a typical day for Henry except that, unknown to him, his adrenaline level was highly elevated. According to Schacter and Singer's view of emotions, that Tuesday Henry most likely experienced (A) a variety of intensified emotions.
What correlation between two measures provide the most accurate basis for predicting one of the measures from the other? (A)-0.88 (close to 1)
Paul Ekman and several other psychologist have argued that humans have six basic emotions: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust. One line of evidence they cite in favor of this is (A)People throughout the world are reasonably accurate in matching these labels to photos of six different facial expressions.
Lata and her parents influence and adapt to one another. For example, her parents have adopted some of her more contemporary preferences for music and she shares their views on the importance of academics. This is an example of (C)Reciprocal socialization
A theorist who agrees with Jean Piaget's basic assumptions regarding cognitive stages would most likely claim that each stage (C)is qualitatively distinct from the other stages.
Two-year-old children may use the word doggie to refer to dogs, cows, cats, and sheep. This use of the word doggie most likely indicates that, in general, two year olds (D)give an overly broad meaning to the word doggie
Personality measurement can be strengthened by applying traditional psychometric principles. For Example, Seymour Epstein has shown that which procedure provides support for the existence of certain personality traits Aggregrating observations across situations and occasions
If both heterozygous parents are carriers of a recessive allele for phenylketonuria, the probability that a given child of these parents will have PKU is 25%
In studying personality and social development, learning theorists have given attention to all but what? The Equilibration of cognitive structures
According to psychoanalytic theory, what would be the correct, though incomplete sequencing of the psychosexual stages? Oral, Anal, Phallic
Studies of laterality have revealed that for most people the right hemisphere of the brain is more active than the left in Perception of complex geometric patterns.
The ascending system of the reticular formation of the brain is most responsible for what? Sleep and waking
What most clearly illustrates the ethological concept of "sign stimulus" A stickleback attacking a piece of red cardboard
Efforts at primary prevention of psychopathology are always Proactive
In the initial treatment of a person with a major depressive disorder, the therapist decides to use a suitable medication rather than attempting to psychotherapy. The primary justification for this initial course of action is that such medication will Likely provide a relatively quick decrease in symptomps
In working with a depressed client, a psychotherapist who uses a strictly behavioral approach to treat depression is most likely to attempt Increase the number of positive reinforcements the client experiences in everyday life.
The theory that refers to the belief people hold about the inputs they bring to their work and the outcomes they receive is Equity Theory
Many speakers of the English Language are taught the rule "Never end a sentence with a preposition." This sort of rule is called Prescriptive
One day a woman visits her old school. As she walks down the hall she remembers events that she had not though about for years. This sitation best exemplifies the Effects of contextual retrieval cues on recall.
Neurological activity that moves outward from the central nervous system toward the muscles and glands is Efferent
What best describes Erikson's concept of the primary developmental task of adolescence in the US? Achievement of a sense of identity.
What usually emerges in development at about the same age that children begin to produce two word sentences? Pretend play
Robert plans to drive cross country, but doesn't want to spend muc money on a suitcase. He needs something that will be large, sturdy and waterproof, and then decides to buy a plastic garbage can with a lid. In solving this problem, he managed to overcome Functional Fixedness
In an experiment w/ animals, a tone is paired with food several times. The tone comes to elicit a salivation response. Subsequent to the pairings, a light is repeatedly paired with tone w/ absence of food. light produces a salivation response. Illustrat? Second Order conditioning
The psychological concept of a schema, as applied to adults, is best defined as A mental structure built up through experience
Complex representations consist of an activation pattern of many individual units that have simply on-off functions. This theoretical view of memory representation is modeled on the actual nervous system and is known as Connectionism
Brown and McNeil (1966) read definitions of rare words to subjects and then asked them to supply the words. When asked about words they though they know, they'd respond with similar words. This phenomenon is The tip of tongue phenomenon
The word pits is made up of 2 morphemes composed of 4 phonemes
When a crowd in a public setting witnessed an accident, nobody acted to help the victim. According to research on the bystander effect, the people in the crowd failed to act because of Diffusion of Responsibility
William McGuire's research on attitude inoculation was primarily concerned with Resisting persuasion
What is true of the questions Alfred Binet selected for use in his first test of intelligence. they discriminated among children of different chronological ages.
The law of effect was initally formulated by Edward L. Thorndike
Lewis Terman's study of gifted children best illustrates what type of research Longitudinal
According to neurodevelopmental hypothesis, minor brain abnormalities begin early in life, probably at or before birth, and are associated with what disorder? Schizophrenia
Research by Eleanor Gibson on depth perception is often viewed as supporting what conclusion? Depth perception in humans is an innate capacity that emerges during infancy.
What best characterizes the procedure developed by Mary Ainsworth to determine the quality of the infant's attachment to a parent? Placing the infant in a situation in which the infant is likely to seek out an attachment figure.
Research indicates that the part of the brain most consistently implicated in speech production is what? Hippocampus
What is the least accurate pairing of a neurotransmitter with an associated phenomenon? Norepinephrine- alcoholism
The substance naloxene is a useful drug for studying the role of endogenous opiates in the nervous system because it competes with morphinelike substance for receptor sites
An experimenter measures an observer's ability to detect very dim lights and discovers that the ability changes after the observer has spent time in the dark. what graph shows this change? (D)
when an individual is memorizing new material, memory is improved by the process of elaboration. What least explains this effect. Elaboration increases the connections among the elements in the material.
Iconic and echoic memory refer to the very brief storage of events at the sensory level.
An individual who uses the rules of language organization to form correct sentences is best characterized as having attained what? Linguistic Competence
All of the follwing belong to the same DSM IV category except: amnesia, fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, or conversion disorder. Conversion disorder
A certain infant passes normally through the prelinguistic stages of crying and cooing. However, the baby stops babbling after having beeing that stage for four months. The initial diagnostic question to be asked regarding the baby's functioning is if the baby has a hearing disorder.
In contrast to trait theories of personality, Walter Mixchel has suggested a focus on Congitive process underlying social behavior
According to Carl Rogers, which of the following therapist characteristics is essential for effective psychotherapy? Accurate Empathic Understanding.
An intersexed is someone born with genitals intermediate between male and female. An intersex is most likely to develop under what prenatal circumstances? A genetic female is exposed to higher than normal levels of testosterone only.
There are 8 scores in a distribution with a mean of score of 36 and variance of 16. What is the standard deviation? 4
What is true of both split half and inter item consistency methods of estimating test reliability? They are determined from a single administration of a single test.
For representing the central tendency of a distribution of scores, the median is generally preferable to the mean if the Distribution is highly skewed.
According to Piaget, the major cognitive attainment of the sensorimotor period is Mental Representation
What plays an important role for both social learning theory and psychoanalytic theory of personality? Childhood experiences as personality influences.
An important difference between the cognitive developmental theories of Piaget and Vygotsky is that Vygotsky placed greater emphasis on what? The causal role of social factors.
If a unidimensional test turns out to be highly reliable, we can be most confident that the test Measures something consistently.
Some nerve fibers in the body are myelinated and some are not. The presence of myelin influences what characteristics of the fiber? Velocity of Conduction
Priming also occurs for other items in a primed category. F.E., verification that a canary is a bird is done quicker if it takes place after that of "a robin is a bird." this phenomenon is explained in terms of Spreading activation
A distractor activity lasting 30 seconds is inserted between the study of a list of unrelated nouns and a free recall test for the nouns. What is the result of the distractor activity? The recency effect is significantly diminished but the primacy effect is not.
Two groups of rats are given sugar water and subjected to bright lights and loud noises. Later nausea is induced in one group and the other gets shocked. Next they're offered to tubes: 1. sugar water; 2 plain water (lights/noises). Sugar water? The rats that received the shock.
The term metacognition refers to Knowledge about how ones own thought processes work.
In the continued absence of cues to external time, what happens to most biological clocks? Their cycles drift out of phase with external time.
Hypothesis: Children become better at solving problems with devel. Using 15 PST- the investigatior measures the time and the number of problems solved by kids 6-12. What does data show? Age is positively correlated with the number of problems solved and is negatively correlated with the time taken to solve each problem.
In a study of 500 high school students, the correlation between iq scores and scores on a standardized test was .55. It can be correctly concluded that A moderate positive relationship exists between two variables.
The phi phenomenon refers to a form of perceived Movement
Research indicates that a measure of attitude best predicts individual differences in behavior under what conditions? the measure attitude is specific to the behavior observed.
From 1930-1960, learning psychologists in the US were especially interested in formulating Behavioral theories
Before inferring a causal relationship between sleep duration and school performance, an investigator should most seriously consider what? Students who are motivated to get better grades may also be motivated to get more sleep.
What would provide evidence about the validity of some students' estimates of their own sleep durations? Ask each students parents to record their child's sleep duration over the two weeks for comparison.
Investigator inspected the correlation that sleep and grades are related by calculating the mean # of hours slept for groups depending on grade. After this, why should the data be qualified? The relationship appears to be nonlinear.
The occurence of helping behavior has been studied by Jane Piliavin and others in terms of the relative costs and benefits of helping and not helping. Such an analysis exemplifies what social psychological theory? Exchange theory.
Getting an overall picture of the effects of psychotherapy is difficult (so much). Some researchers have tried to solve this by doing? Meta Analysis
Which of the following is an abnormality accompanied by mental retardation and marked by the presence of an extra 21 chromosome. Down's syndrome
What, if true, would be the strongest evidence for a genetic contribution to a psychological disorder? Identical twins raised apart are considerably more similar regarding the occurence of the disorder than are same gender fraternal twins raised apart.
2 tests are said to measure nostalgia. An investigator analyzes those and other tests. The investigator is interested in... Construct Validity
The mode and the median of a set of scores are each an index of Central Tendency
A person who is seated in front of a mirror engages in a short phone conversation. According to research on the actor observer effect, what kind of attribution is that person most likely to make for his or her behavior Dispositional
According to Sandra Bem's gender schema theory what is true? Children learn to categorize people and objects in term of gender.
When injected into the bloodstream, a snake venom causes paralysis by occupying certain receptor sites, and thus prevents the release of NT's that normally stimulate muscle. In this situation venom acts as a Antagonist
Subjects are presented w/ a randomly arranged list of animals, fruits, and tools and then asked to recall the list in any order they wish. Their recall protocols are most likely to show what? The items that belong to the same conceptual category occur close together.
What statement best characterizes Bartlett's schema based model of memory? We remember by a process of reconstruction, using our experiences and expectations.
Cross sectional, longitudinal and cohort sequential designs are used in developmental research. Of the three, the cohort design is uniquely suited to Strengthening inferences by replicating longitudinal findings across cohorts.
A researcher ran a study in which people judged whether strings were words or nonwords. Varied length and measured RT. Concluded that it takes more time per letter. What is the major prob w/ conclusion? The data show a speed/accuracy trade off.
The radial maze, Morris search task, and delayed nonmatching to sample task are methods of testing what characteristic of nonhuman animals? Memory
Which of the following transformations may be made on data having ratio scale properties without changing the ratio characteristics of the original data? Multiplying all scores by a positive constant.
Albert Bandura's approach to personality is referred to as Social Learning Theory
The theory of signal detection has been used to distinguish between Sensitivity and Response Bias
The following seven scores were attained on a psychological test: 6,7,8,9,10,15,15. What are the mean, median, and mode, respectively, of these seven scores? 10,9,15
An investigator found a significant difference in memory performance btw participants who used mnemonic devices and those who did not. Whether this study is a true experiment would depend most critically on which of the following? Whether the experimenter instructed a randomly selected subset of participants to use mnemonic devices or let all participants decide for themselves.
A patient shows impaired performances on delayed matching to sample tasks and other measures of working memory. What is least likely to cause such impairments in performance? Use of a stimulant drug such as caffeine or aphetamine.
What approach to therapy relies most directly on the principles of classical conditioning? Systematic desensitization
Which of the following is the best-documented contrast in the ways mothers and fathers in the US interact with their infants? Mothers talk to and play quietly with their infants, whereas fathers play more physically and actively.
It has been argued that children do not acquire language solely by imitating others. This argument is best supported by evidence regarding which of the following? The linguistic generativity exhibited by young children
Relative to others his age, 8month old Joey tends to cry alot, takes time to soothe, exhibits irregular biological rhythms, and reacts strongly to low levels of stimulation. From the standpoint of research on temperament, Joey would be classified as Difficult
The galvanic skin response has been used primarily to measure Activity of the sympathetic nervous system
In a classic experiment on "sham rage" in cats, the cats cerebral cortexes were removed and the cats were exposed to noxious stimuli. The findings suggested that in the cat The cortex acts as an inhibitor of aggressive behavior.
A basic generalization concerning the projections of body surface receptors to the cortex is that the amount of cortex devoted to a particular region of body surface is an increasing function of the Use and sensitivity of the body region
A schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required to produce a reinforcement changes unpredictably during the experiment is referred to as a Variable ratio schedule
The aspect of memory most affected after the onset of anterograde amnesia is memory of events that occur after the onset of amnesia
What feature of the learning process would be least likely to enhance long term retention of the material. Repeating each key word in the material separately three or four times.
In transitive inference probs- participants are given sets of premises fo the form A>B and B>C and then asked to make inferences. Based on Piaget what is an expected result if given to 4 and 10 year olds. Only ten year olds solve the problems, because of their acquired patterns of operational thought
For most children, performance on many memory tasks tends to improve w/devel. An information-procesing theorist is likely to explain such improvement how? As children develop, they acquire and use a greater variety of memorization strategies.
Several abilities are measured repeatedly in the same participants at 55, 65, and 75 years of age. For which of the following measures would the observed decline with age be expected to be most obvious? Motor performance under time pressure
When experts and novices solve a problem, they differ in several respects. What is least likely to differentiate between the two groups? General intelligence as measured by a standardized test.
According to a "levels of processing" approach, which of the following would be the best way for a student to study a topic? Paraphrasing and summarizing the information
What would best exemplify the availability heuristic? A belief held by city dwellers that there are more librarians than farmers in the US.
Adults whose first language is English automatically place adjectives before nouns in most sentences they utter. This fact best supports what inference? These speakers have acquired rules of English syntax.
In an experiment, group X performed a task better than group Y. The investigator wishes to use the t-test to determine whether the mean difference is statistically sig. To do so, the investigator doesn't need to know what? Whether both groups were equally motivated.
If, in the validation of a test, a correlation coefficient is computed, it is most likely the correlation between A test and a criterion measure
The notions of the looking glass self and reflected appraisals suggest that self concept arises from the individual's Perceptions of the opinions of others.
Research has shown that even if an undesirable behavior is no more probable in a minority group than in the majority, the behavior will be thought to be associated with minority status. This misperception best exemplifies illusory correlation
In Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance, the dissonance is said to arise from Conflict between cognitions
When shown a picture of a man swinging an object and told, "This is a man who knows how to rick. He is ricking. yesterday he ___," preschool and 1st grade kids usually supply the correct past tense ricked. Such findings shows evidence that Know some of the grammatical rules for forming the past tense.
Decreased intergenerational conflict during the late teen years is most likely explained by what changes in teen behavior? Enhanced perspective taking ability
The names Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka are all associated with the founding of what? Gestalt psychology
For a given test with a given population, the minimum score is zero, the mean is 10, and the standard deviation is 20. What must be true about the distrib of scores? More than half of the scores are less than 10, but the distribution includes at least one score above 20.
Drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine tend to affect the brain by Increasing activity at certain types of dopamine synapses
Dichotic listening and shadowing are experimental procedures most often used in studying what? Selective attention
In studies of human memory, the magic number 7+/- 2 refers to the Number of items that can be repeated without error immediately after hearing them.
Memory for what is most probably an example of episodic memory What clothes you wore yesterday.
Size constancy refers to the fact that we perceive The distal stimulus as unchanging in size despite changes in our viewing position.
Maria, a student, can recall very little of the French that she learned in 7th grade. Maria enrolls in a beginning French course at college and learns French quicker than she had earlier. What describes this increased rate of learning? Savings
Who was the first to develop the concept of stream of consciousness? James (William)
What best expresses George Kelly's view of personality? People construe the world and act accordingly
Research indicates the ratings of personality traits tend to intercorrelate in consistent ways, even when persons rate others whom they scarcely know. This finding provides direct evidence for Implicit theories of personality
Most people follow an approximately 24 hour schedule of wakefulness and sleepiness, even under constant lighting and temperature, because of Cycles of activity generated in the hypothalamus of the brain.
The test item "Getting what I want has little or nothing to do with luck" is most likely to be from a measure of Locus of control
The approach to studying personality that focuses on intra individual tendencies and their oganization is called idiographic
Anthropologists such as BK Malinowski have studied culture with few sexual taboos in order to determine the validity of the theories of Sigmund Freud
Transmission of neural impulses across most synapses in the nervous system relies on Chemical events
Ordinarily, there is a profound loss of postural muscle tone in which of the following REM sleep
The term of receptive field refers to The portion of a sensory field to which a cell responds
Suppose that a kind of contrast effect were to occur when a stimulus is presented to one eye and a diff stimulus is shown to the other. Such a phenomenon would best support what conclusions? Sensory information processing occurs in the central nervous system.
What is the best example of a placebo effect? Improvement in a condition following treatment with a pharmacologically inert substance.
An individual having what disorder would be least likely to experience guilt or remorse? Antisocial Personality Disorder
The Schizophrenia Scale of the MMPI was initially developed by contrasting the item responses of patients diagnosed as schizophrenic with the item responses of what groups? Adults believed to have no psychiatric disorders
Developers of classification systems for the types of psychotic disorders found in DSM IV are best characterized as the intellectual descendants of Emil Kraepelin
Maria is asked to evaluate the 1st yr performance of college freshman & then decided if they merited aid. She compares her own GPA and performance. This situation best illustrates Anchoring
When a conditioned response is measured on the first extinction trial, what is the usual result? The response strength is similar to that on the immediately preceding trial.
A rat is conditioned to press a lever at a specific sound to get found. After this, generalization test is conducted. In the generalization test the rati is responding to what? more ofthen the stimulus over a 1000hz
The USC clearly defines the concept of the American President. Yet the person who holds this office changes at regular intervals. These two observations, by themselves indicate what? The referent of a term must be distinguished from the meaning of the term.
Sensory transduction refers to the process whereby External events trigger neural events.
The facial feedback and James Lange theories of emotion both claim that A specific kind of bodily response precedes the experience of a specific emotion
The intensity of a stimulus might be coded by a single nerve fiber in a number of ways. What eliminates the possibility that intensity might be coded by differing amounts of potential change in the neural impulses? The all or none law.
Prolonged use of antipsychotic drugs in treating schizophrenia often leads to physical symptoms most similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease
To say that the categories within a classification scheme used for psychiatric diagnosis are satisfactorily reliable means that There is a high level of agreement among professionals regarding which category a particular person fits into at any one time.
A man who was the victime of a crime recovers from the physical injuries. Even a year later, he experiences recurrent, intrusive memories of the incident, can't concentrate, has sleep disturbance. Most like suffering from A Posttramautic Stress Disorder
The F ratio is a ratio of Variance estimates.
An experimental setup w/ a dog includes the following sequence of events: a bell sounds, the dog approaches the bell salivating, the dog receives food. What is the best question to ask in determining whether the experimenter was studying CC or IC? Did the presentation of food depend on the dog's behavior?
A Anova is conducted on the data in a 3x3 factorial design (two factors, each having three levels) involving one dependent variable. For this analysis, what would be the total number of interaction terms? One
Many observers perceive the figure above as a triangle. What principle of Gestalt psychology would best explain this? Closure
In a study of retroactive interference, an experimenter used the following procedure for each participant: learn list 1, learn list 2, recall list 1. This procedure for studying RI is questionable because the experimenter Failed to include a control group that did not perform an interfering interpolated activity.
The hiring of minority group members on the basis of a job selection test is less than 80 percent of the rate for majority group members. Based on this information, the test can be said to have Adverse impact
Who developed a formal model based on the idea that behavior is a joint function of the person and the environment? Kurt Lewin
What was a major reason why psychology became a discipline independent of philosophy during the 19th century? Pyschology's use of the experimental method.
Research on gender comparisons in nonverbal communication typically shows that Women are more skillful than men in decoding facial expressions.
M.J. Lerner and his associates have found that a participant randomly assigned to receive shock is disliked by another participant observing the situation. They explain this downgrading of an innocent victim in terms of The Just world hypothesis
On their first date, Bill and Sue go to a frightening movie and then he falls helplessly in love with her. This sequence of events is best explained by Excitation Transfer Theory
What proposition best exemplifies the social psychological concept of the sleeper effect? The persuasive impact of a low credibility source tends to increase over time.
A picture of a pencil is presented so that it is represented in the right hemisphere of a split brain patient who has left hemisphere dominance. As a result, the patient will most likely respond by Using the left hand to select a pencil from a group of hidden objects.
What is not a correct statement about postnatal neuronal development in mammals? The organism has its full complement of synapses soon after birth.
The same substance may act as a hormone or as a neurotransmitter. The major distinction between the two is that a hormone is Secreted into the bloodstream, whereas a neurotransmitter is secreted into a synapse
Research indicates that the two members of a romantic pair are most likely to be judged by others as Similar in physical attractiveness
What factors appears to predispose males of some species to mate with only one female during a mating season? The need for prolonged and intensive parental care to ensure the survival of each offspring.
Animals were exposed to a series of learning tasks that needed many skills. Regardless of the sequence, learning was faster on the last problem in each animals' series than on the first. This study was most likely designed to investigate Learning set acquisition
What disorder is most likely to be treated with exposure and response prevention procedures? Obsessive Compulsive
Judgments by a human learner about the material that will be easiest to learn and remember are associated with what aspect of human cognition? Metamemory
Walter Mischel has proposed 5 personality variables that he believes account for individual differences in people's behavior. What is not one of the five? Behavioral Traits
The tendency to overemphasize dispositional factors and to underemphasize situational factors when making attributions about the behaviors of others is called the Fundamental attribution error
An investigator of animal behavior wishes to conduct a study in which the effects of individual differences w/in a given species are minimized. Such effect are best minimized through Inbreeding
When threatened animals react in different ways. Not attributable to reinforcement or conditioning. Responses are called Species specific reactions
Dog are given a series of shocks. At the end, they are responding passively. Later they get more. They respond passively. The phenom investigate is Learned helplessness
This book is about the highly personal experience of each one of us...is about me...This quote is most characteristic of the position taken by Carl Rogers in On Becoming a Person
After each of Joyce's last 3 meals at the school cafeteria, she vomited. Before the 4th meal, Joyce began to feel nauseated as soon as she saw the cafeteria. In terms of CC, what is the conditioned stimulus? the door
A rat receives a lesion in the ventromedial portion of its hypothalamus. It eats until it gets obese and maintains. Forcefed and goes over. This suggests that lesions are analogous to Increasing the temperature setting of a thermostat.
The operant procedure for reinforcing responses that come closer and closer to the final target responses is called Shaping
Cross-cultural research has compared individualistic and interdependent cultures. W/ regard to conformity, such studies best support which of the following conclusions? Conformity tends to be greater in interdependent cultures than in individualistic cultures.
The Robber's Cave experiment is a classic study in social psychology that was designed to examine what phenomenon? Prejudice
Some people are sensitive to reactions of others. When they modify their behavior according to others, Snyder says they are engaging in Self monitoring
A statistical analysis indicated that there was an interaction btw experimential condition and type of task. According to graph this interaction suggests that Dividing attention entails cost to performance in one task but not in the other.
In a study of the effectiveness of divided attention, it is most important that the experimential design include A counterbalance of the order in which participants are tested in the baseline and dual task conditions.
The investigator wishes to test the generalizability of the findings. What procedure would be the least informative for this purpose? The original data are analyzed by a different research team with the same pattern of results.
Carol Gilligan has criticized developmental theorists such as Lawrence Kohlberg for Failing to recognize how the female's experience and outlook influence the course of her development.
Some psychologists claim that any natural language is an indefinitely large set of possible well formed sentences. It follows from this that learning of languages must involve learning Productive rules for generating and understanding utterances.
Research has indicated that, in contrast with individuals who are not depressed, individuals who are depressed tend to be more Realistic
In research by Loftus- some participants were given wrong info after event. These participants reported the event less than those who weren't given info. This is similar to Retroactive Interference.
A young girl feels proud and happy when her mother receives an honor. From the standpoint of a psychodynamic theory of personality development, the girls feelings are a direct manifestation of Identification
Consider the hypothetical situation in which a sensory neuron for different areas produces one kind of response. This situation would directly contradict The law of specific nerve energies
The blind spot of the eye is so named because at this location there Are no photoreceptors
College students are given free recall tests on randomly ordered lists of 30 words each. The serial position curves for recall of these lists are most likely to have a distinctive shape indicating what? Best recall in the recency section, next best in the primacy section, and poorest in the middle section.
Extinction is sometimes defined as a return to the response rate observed at the pretraining level. This definition is most often applied to which type of learning? Operant
According to Thomas Szasz's views on the myth of mental illness, a major fault of the medical model of psychopathology is that it Fails to acknowledge that the diagnoses of mental illness are culture-bound value judgments.
A basic proposition for parallel distributed process models is that mental representations of events are Found in both analog and propositional modes.
According to Hans Selye, the sequence of responses to stress in the general adaptation syndrome is what? Alarm, resistance, exhaustion
What is not likely to be emphasized by traditional learning theorists as important in the process of behavior modification? Therapeutic insight
Participants hear a story. The experimenter then asks them to categorize sentences by which was in story and not. The participants are most likely to show what patterns of memory? They will place grammatically altered, sematically unaltered sentences in Category A.
For elementary school children, measures of aggressiveness and IQ are similar in the sense that both types of measures yield scores that Show at least moderate stability of individual differences over time.
Which of the following provided the most detailed evidence concerning the course of moral development after childhood? Lawrence Kohlberg
What personality theorist most strongly argued that behavior is largely determined by forces beyond the individual's personal choice and control? Sigmund Freud
According to psychoanalytic theory, the saying "What you don't know can't hurt you" best illustrates which defense mechanisms? Repression
What statement is consistent with the theoretical position of John B. Watson? Overt behavior should be the focus of investigation in psychology.
What is a defining difference between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder? Major depressive disorder involves only depressive symptoms, but bipolar disorder involves both manic and depressive.
What is an example of recognition testing? "Is this word one of the words I showed you earlier?"
In a memory exp, participants study 2 lists of unrelated words. The exp group study 1st list and then list 2. Control study pics and list 2. What results are expected? The control group will recall more items from list 2 than the experimental group
What is characterized by a long history of dramatic complaints about faked medical histories? Factitious disorder
What disorder is incorrectly paired with an empirically supported intervention for treating it? Encopresis...rational emotive behavior therapy
Object relations therapy is most closely related to Psychoanalysis
Prosopagnosia results in an inability to Detect individual differences among faces
What is most likely to occur quickly when cocaine blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine? Prolongation of the effects of norepinephrine and dopamine at the synapse.
In an exp, a pigeon was rewarded every 20 secs regardless of behavior. Bte of the exp, the frequency of the pigeons grooming responses had increased. What phenom explains this? Superstitious behavior
2 rat groups are exposed to a shock that occurs after a blue light. 1st group has prior exposure but it occured randomly. The 2nd had no experience. Rats freeze w/light. What is true when the rats are shown blue lights w/ shock? The second group will freeze because the light is a more valid predictor of shock for that group.
Longitudinal and cross sectional research designs can be used to study how behavior changes as a function of age. A disadvantage of cross sectional studies is that the results can be influenced by cohort differences
A cognitive theory of gender role development would most likely state what? Children are motivated to act in gender consistent ways because they try to conform to their own gender schemas.
Research indicates that the words in the young language learner's lexicon are most likely to be nouns referencing familiar objects in the environment.
Autistic disorder is a developmental condition that is not characterized by what? Hyperactivity
In studies by Stanley Milgram and his colleagues, what is a factor that tends to elicit a relatively low level of obedience? An authority figure in another room gave instructions to the teacher.
One could use the empathy altruism hypothesis to explain what? the motivation underlying prosocial behavior.
In a job interview, Kathy tells her prospective employer that once found a bag of money and returned it. Kathy's behavior during her interview illustrates Exemplification
Sandra participated in a signal detection study assessing vision. The graph above illustrates her responss on the signal and noise. She said she didn't see it in the unshaded and she did to the shaded. Based on this, a correct conclusion is that Sandra would have had more hits if her criterion had been moved to the left.
The auditory and vestibular systems are alike in that both Depend on hair cells to tranduce the proximal stimulus into neural activity
On a dark night, you spot a light, just to the right of your focal point. When you look at the light, it disappears. What is the best explanation for this phenomenon? Rods allow you to see in poorly lit environments and rods are not present in the fovea.
An experiment who incorrectly rejects the null hypothesis commits what kinds of error? A type 1 error
The terms "purposive behaviorism" and signgestalt learning are used to describe the learning theory developed by what psychologist? Wolfgang Kohler
What individual is at the highest risk of developing schizophrenia? Mary, whose identical twin has schizophrena
A professor is developing a theory of personality based on BF Skinner's principles. The concept that will be central to this theory is Reinforcement contingencies
What theorist proposes confrontation, avoidance, and seeking social support as the ways people cope with anxiety? Karen Horney
One of the most common tactics in personality research is to assess traits. The most fundamental characteristic of traits is that they are Inferences based on behavior
Attempting to describe or understand conscious experience was of least interest to the early behaviorists, such as John B. Watson
According to educational psychologists, cooperative learning involves Joint effort among students
One of the fundamental assumptions of the behaviorist approach is that the probability of a behavior depends on past consequences of that behavior
A 40 item vocab test was given to students. A 2nd similar test of vocab terms was given to the same students 1 wk later. Correlation was .9 What can be stated regarding the two tests? They have strong reliability
On an attitude scale, 1-7 represent different degrees of strength, but the distance btw any 2 adjacent points remain undetermined. This scale can be said to have the properties of An ordinal scale
A correlation of .20 is found btw education and income in a rep sample of residents in a city. The correlation is not sig. On the basis of this outcome, what conclusions is warranted? No significant relation between education and income was established
It is harder to parse a sentence in the passive than in the active. However "the elephant squashed the peanut" is no harder than "the peanut was squashed" These examples provide support for the view that we Use semantics as a guide to parsing
Pat and Chris are eating dinner at Chris'. Pat asks, "Do you have salt?" Chris replies Yes and continues eating. Psychologists who study language would say that Chris has committed a Pragmatic
How many morphemes are there in the word "dreamers" three
Kevin is 12 months old and has never seen a cat. When he sees one, he seems startled but then he looks at his mother to see how she is responding. this is an example of what? Social referencing
Kohlberg's and Gilligan's theories of moral development are driven by different values. What best represents the values of each theory? Justice, Care
A preschool child says, the sun is sad today. This child is demonstrating what? Animism
A woman helps her daughter tie her shoes by providing a good deal of help at first and then providing less and less help until the child is able to do it by herself. this is an example of Scaffolding
Failure of dopamine produced in the substania nigra to reach the basal ganglia of the cerebral hemispheres result in symptoms of tremor, rigidity, akinesia, and disturbances of posture. This syndrome is called Parkinson's disease
Jack has an irresistible urge to check his door lock exactly 5 times before he goes to bed. He realizes it is excessive and irrational, but he feels anxious unless he does it. Jack's behavior is an example of Compulsion
What individual is most likely to benefit from taking a medication that is a SSRI? Shannon, who feels helpless, worthless, and apathetic, and who thinks her life is without meaning.
According to ethologists, fixed patterns of responses to particular classes of stimuli usually occur as a result of innate releasing mechanisms
What is part of the nervous system that primarily deals with visceral muscles and glands? Autonomic system
Saltatory conduction in a neuron is a process whereby An action potential jumps from node to node in a myelinated axon.
What brain structure is it that plays a crucial role in regulating and moderating an organisms emotional responses and learning about emotional events Amygdala
2 strangers, Lisa and Henry, were both watching a large building being imploded. At the implosion they became attracted to each other and began dating. Lisa and Henry's attraction is best explained by what? Excitation transfer
People from collectivist cultures are more likely than people from individualistic cultures to engage in what behaviors? Defining self in relation to others
Research on social cognition best supports what conclusion? Social concepts used frequently by an indivdual in the past are likely to influence the individual's future social cognitions.
What statement describes one of the sources of information that help us locate the direction from which a sound is coming? The sound typically reaches the two ears at different times.
We perceive what we expect. W/ an ambiguous figure we can see two profiles or a vase. We are more likely to see the vase if we had been exposed previously. The influence of expectation on preception is an example of Top down processing
Psychologists studying sensation and perception are interested in reseearch on phantom limb pain because such research Points out that pain can be perceived even when pain receptors are not being stimulated.
Use of private speech by preschool children best supports what? It can enhance children's understanding of their immediate situations and help them make decisions as they talk to themselves.
According to research regarding the significance of birth order during adolescence, what comments was most likely made by a fathering concerning his eldest child? I don't know where she finds the time for her homework and all of her extracurricular activities
The symbolic play of children is considered very important in their development, primarily because it reflects The ability to have one object or concept stand for another.
On a test w/ a postively skewed distribution, one student received the mean score, one the median, and another the mode. Which has the greatest percentile ranking? the mean
A marketing co rewards associates w/ a bonus for every 15 surveys they complete. What schedule of reinforcement best describes this pay arrangement? Fixed ratio
A father has been trying to get his son to clean his room. The child was told he'd have to wash dishes Saturday if he did not. The father is using Avoidance learning
White coat hypertension refers to elevated blod pressure. It may be as much as 30 points higher at the doctors than home. What in CC explains this? The doctor's office serves as a conditioned stimulus for increased blood pressure.
A researcher needs an equal number of participants from each of several age groups to test for developmental differences. What sampling procedures would be best used? Stratified random sampling
Bill obtained a raw score of 30 on the midterm examination. If the man was 25 and the standard deviation was 5. Bill's T score would be 60
What is the correct sequence of test development? Test conceptualization, test construction, test tryout, item analysis, revision
According to Harold Kelley's notion of consensus, a person who tripped and almost fell on the sidewalk would most likely think Lots of people trip in that particular place
What is not an important component of Martin Fishbein and Icek Aizen's theory of reasoned action/planned behavior? Peripheral persuasion cues
According to a social-learning explanation for gender differences in nonverbal communication, what is true? Children are reinforced for gender consistent nonverbal behavior and observe and imitate the nonverbal of same-gender adults.
Contemporary theories of work motivation, such as equity theory and expectancy theory, assume that what elements is central to motivated behavior? Cognitive behaviors
Neurotransmitters are released from what neuronal structure? Axon terminal
What neurotransmitters is released at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle axons to excite the muscle to contract? Acetylcholine
What is a noninvasive technique that allows cognitive neuroscientists to study processing by the intact human brain? Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
According to ethologists and evolutionary psychologists, the evolution of altruistic behavior is best explained by what? Individuals showing altruistic behavior promote the survival of relatives, who are likely to have similar genes.
When early researches developed a measure of the need for achievement, they emphasized the importance of Motivation to succeed and fear of failure
A theorist who concludes that predictions about behavior depend on information about the situation and the traits that characterize a person assumes what approach? Interactionist
Encoding of new memories is most likely to be disrupted by damage to the Hippocampus
How might the response tendency referred to as "social desirability" relate to an individual's performance on a personality inventory? An individual may try to answer the questions in a way that places the individual in a more favorable light.
What shows the application of social comparison theory? Janet feels poorly about herself because her teammate always beats her at tennis.
What is the best example of social exchange? If you help me study for this exam, I will help you fix your car.
The behavioral technique of flooding is most likely to be used in the treatment of people with a specific phobia
A limitation of existential therapy is that it lacks well-defined therapeutic techniques
In developmental psychology the phrase "out of sight, out of mind" best describes what? Lack of object permanence
2 children are playing in a sandbox. One is talking about sandcastles, the other- lunch. They talk turns talking, but neither listens. The 2 are engaged in what type of play? Parallel
A newborn who turns her head toward something that touches her cheek is most likely exhibiting what? The rooting reflex
Implementation of a double blind procedure would be most difficult in studying the behavioral effects what? Psychotherapy
Recent findings indicate that new neurons from in what area of the adult mammalian brain? Hippocampus
Research suggests that young girls who frequently watch tv are most likely than other young girls to be gender stereotyped. We can't conclude that tv leads to increased gender stereotyped because Cause and effect conclusions cannot be drawn from these data.
The argument that psychology should be an objective study of behavior wherein mind and consciousness serve no useful purpose was made most vigorously by John B. Watson
The most appropriate way for researchers to assess participants implicit memory of a short essay would be to ask them to Read the essay again and see whether the participants read it faster than a comparable, but unfamiliar essay.
On Tuesday, Sam had fish for dinner. On Wednesday, he did not think about Tuesday's dinner. On Thurday, he thought about the fish from Tuesay. On Wednesay, Tuesday's dinner was represented as Episodic Memory
What is an essential feature of a distributed system such as parallel distributed processing? New concepts are learned via connection weights that cause a pattern of activation.
What would be a way to improve the study on Alzheimers? Use participants with later stages of Alzheimer's disease rather than early Alzheimer's
What valid criticism could be made about the demand characteristics of the study? Participants knew the medication was supposed to help them, so they might have tried harder on the tests.
If the researcher conducted the experiment using a double blind procedure, what would she do? Add a placebo group and ensure that neither the participants nor those administering the cognitive testing know who is in the medication group and who is in the placebo group.
What would be necessary to turn this study into a true experiment? Randomly assign Alzheimer's patients to the medication and control groups.
The researcher decides to conduct a second study using a better design. They get 34 patients. 17 get the drug and the rest don't. They are given a pretest and then a posttest. Cog skills in the first group are ok, but not in the second. This design is a Quasi experimental design
A research examines the development of memory using shallow processing and deep processing. She tested 9 and 16 year olds. Half of each were put in each condition. There is an interaction btw age and condition. Interpretation? Depth processing has little or no benefit for the 9 year olds, but more substantial benefits for the 16 year olds.
David has found that emotion focused coping helps him handle some of the stress related to his many responsibilities at school. An example of this type of coping strategy is Trying to feel better about some of his less pleasant duties
Research has revealed that the trait most associated with heart attacks in Type A individuals is Hostility toward others
What is an example of a delusion? Being erroneously convinced that one's neighbors are plotting to take over the world.
What best portrays the concept of sunk costs? If the company cancels its plan now, it will lose all of the money already invested in the plan
Participants were presented w/ a list of 24 names. The list had 12 famous women and 12 unknown men. The participants reported there were more women than men. This demonstrates what? The availability heuristic
What is not an example of metacognition? A student studies by repeating material over and over.
The changes in neural activity that occur throughout the human brain during reading can be measured by Positron emission tomography
What theorists stated that personality involves the way an individual deals with feeling of inferiority? Alfred Adler
Research by Kagan and others has revealed that some young children have stronger physiological reactions to new situations than others. Children with these reactions are more likely to display Shyness
What best describes intellectual changes that typically occur in older people? Crystallized intelligence remains stable or increases slightly.
A diathesis-stress model would be useful in explaining the etiology of what disorder? Down Syndrome
Andrenocorticotropic hormone is secreted by the Pituitary Gland
Schizoaffective disorder is the diagnosis given when a person shows what symptoms? Severe disturbances of thinking along with a severe mood disturbance
Human brain injury that includes the region of the left superior temporal gyrus adjacent to the auditory cortex results in deficits characterized by Grammatical speech but poor language comprehension
Margaret developed a minor headache and made an appointment w/ her doc. After an exam, the doc said the headache was nothing. If Margaret repeatedly misinterpreted these signs, she is Hypochondriasis
A drug is classified as a neurotransmitter agonist. One way in which this drug could affect synaptic transmission is by Increasing release
James is agile and strong. During his teens, he gets into sports and other environments. This is an example of what type of genotype environment correlation? Niche picking
According to most cognitive therapists, psychological problems are most likely to be associated with what? Inflexible maladaptive thoughts
What is the best example of the defense mechanism of rationalization In order to deal with her disappointment about not being hired for a job. Marie convinced herself that she really did not want to work for such a poorly run company anyway
Research regarding the risky shift phenomenon has indicated that decision making groups do not always shift in a more risky direction. The risky shift is now seen as an example of what? Group Polarization
What concepts would create the most cognitive dissonance for a person with strong just world beliefs? An innocent victim
According to Erik Erikson's theory, the process of development occurs In response to exposure to environmental stimuli
When psychology first emerged as a separate discipline, it was distinguished from philosophy primarily by its emphasis on Materialism
Phenylketonuria, cystic fibrosis, and tay sachs all result from Recessive genetic disorders
If a dye such as trypan blue is injected into the bloodstream of a rat, all of the organs of the animal are stained blue w/ the exception of the brain. This finding is due to what? The brain is protected by a barrier that prevents the dye from penetrating it
Receptors in the vomeronasal organ control behavior responses to Pheromones
What personality test is derived from the personality theory developed by Jung? Myers Brigg Type Indicator
What question regarding an individual's performance is most directly based on Bandura's concept of self efficacy? How does the individual perceive his or her ability to deal effectively with the environment?
Investigators of the self serving attributional bias typically compare attributions for success and attributions for failure in terms of what dimensions? Locus
While a board of directors attempted to a make a decision, all members felt pressure to accept view and reject ideas that were contrary. This illustrates groupthink
What represents the best example of instrumental aggression? A thief harms the store clerk so he can steal the money
A person whose optic chiasm is severed is likely to maintain intact vision in the Right visual field with left eye and the left visual field with the right eye
What depth cue would be least useful to an artist attempting to create an impression of depth in a flat painting? Accomodation
Following several sessions with Cathy, Dr. Wright makes the following statement to her about her depression. Your depression may be due to your interpretation of events in life. This illustrates what? Cognitive
Suppose that a soundly conducted investigation reveals that a certain measure of cognitive ability has heritability of .4 in a subgroup of young adults. This supports what conclusions regarding measure? Approximately 40% of the variance is attributable to genetic factors within this subgroup.
Eric displays no regard for the right of others, shows no remorse when he abuses others, and has a repeated pattern of stealing. It is most likely that he has what personality disorders? Antisocial
When clustering occurs during a free recall test of memory a participant will place items from a test list into categories and report the items back category by category.
Participants in GA are required to remember a list of 8 numbers. GB are required to know the same lists, but also work on another task. Both have the same recall. This is consistent with The capacities of the two different components of working memory are independent of each other.
What best states the meaning of a sensitive period in development? An age period during which an influence has important long lasting and even permanent effects
Angela sneaks into her bros room and eats his candy. Her mother walks in and tells her that is grounded. Angela is not allowed to question or discuss her mothers decision. This parenting style is Authoritarian
What describes a sociometric technique? A research tool used to assess the degree to which children are liked by their peers.
5yr old Anthony is shown 2 rows of pics. One row has pics of 3 dogs and the other 7 cats. When asked Are there more cats or more animals,he answers more cats. The boy still lacks what according to Piaget? Class inclusion
What is considered a likely reason for the cognitive declines that affect many people after middle age? Decreased processing speed
Komiko has just won a congressional election. Some voters remark that they had always been confident that Komiko would win. Some of those voters expressed doubts. This illustrates what concept? Hindsight Bias
A group of experts in a specialized area were able to solve a problem easier than novices. What is the reason? The experts had developed superior chunking routines for processing the specialized information.
Research on problem solving indicates that heuristic search strategies compared with algorithmic strategies are More efficient
A diagnostic test for a disease has 95 percent accuracy, but the incidence of the disease is low. this means that when this test is used for diagnosis, what is true? There will be many more false alarms than misses.
What would produce the best long term retention of material being studied? Studying the material 5x with several days between repetitions while focusing on the meaning of the material.
In operant conditioning, the procedure for extinction of a response is to Withhold all reinforcements after responses
According to drive reduction theory of Clark Hull, motives can be described as a search for homeostasis. What supports view? Mice will learn to negotiate a maze in order to obtain a substance with nutritional value
A researcher predicts College GPA using the SAT and HS GPA of 1000 students. What statistical technique would the researcher use to analyze the data? Multiple regression
Magdelena has a large bilateral lesion in her orbitofrontal cortex which has caused a number of disturbances in her behavior. What symptom is most likely to be evident in Magdelena? Although she responds appropriately to hypothetical moral dilemmas, she fails to exhibit normal social behavior in her own life
A factorial design is one that 2 or more independent variables and one dependent variable
What is an important characteristic of a normal distribution of a set of scores? The mean mode and median are identical
Research demonstrates that when nurses regularly discuss prenatal care, parenting, and child development with preg teens at risk for child maltreat- it reduces it. This intervention is called Primary Prevention
What has a known organic basis? Amnestic Disorder
What is not true about children who have pervasive developmental disorders? Many recover by 18
Juan admitted himself to an inpatient psyc unit for anxiety disorder. He also has diabetes. Using the DSM IV- the clinicial would specify each disoder under what Axis? Axis I, Axis III
Gonadal hormones can act upon the brains of adult animals to alter the frequency or intensity but not the form of their sexual behavior. These effects are referred to as Activational
Most antipsychotic medications work by blocking receptors for what neurotransmitter? Dopamine
What argument is most central to the view that innate factors have an important effect on language acquisition? Linguistic cues that are available in the environment are too limited to enable language learning.
Even when the best solution may be an alternative strategy, a participant tested on a new set of problems continues to apply a solution that had been applied successfully in a number of previous trials. The participant is exhibiting Mental set
When problem solvers have difficulty seeing the pliers in the 2 string problem as a pendulum weight they are displaying Functional Fixedness
What is an example of confirmation bias Ahmet believes that his friend lied to him, so he reviews their recent conversation looking for instances in which the friend may have lied.
If Mario had stepped on the passenger's foot because he was still disturbed over an argument he had that day with his boss, Mario's behavior would be an example of Displacement
If Mario commits the fundamental attribution error, he will most likely see the cause of the stranger's transgression as Dispositional
An aggressive person, prone toward the hostile attribution bias, would see the cause of the stranger's transgression as Intentional
If Mario had been depressed at the time that the stranger stepped on his toes he would be less likely to commit what mistakes in his search for the cause? self serving bias
Clark Hull's learning curve shows A negatively accelerated function
A rat is exposed to a faint 10 db tone followed by a shock. A 2nd rat is exposed to a loud 60db followed by a shock. The first rat is likely to do what? Take longer than the second rat to show a CR
The concept of preparedness or belongingness, as applied to animal learning or to human acquisition of phobias, refers to the idea that most individuals Are born with a predisposition to make some associations more readily than others
A boss offered her employees a small increase. The workers don't want to accept for the fear of a longer workday and fewer benefits. What type of argument is this A slippery slope
Controversial status children, as indicated by a peer sociometric, are those who receive many liked and many disliked nominations
Muzafer Sherif's Robber's Cave experiment is a classic demonstration of the effects of mutual interdependence
Jacinta studied all morning for a geography test & she read a book that took place in SA. During the test she complained that the book made her forget most of the facts. What accounts for her problem? Retroactive interference
What experimental results provides evidence for an acoustical code in working memory? Participants make more errors in recalling letter pairs that sound alike than in pairs that look alike.
Tameka and Joe are having difficulty remembering the street where a friend lives. Joe says that he thinks the street is named for a type of tree. Tameka immediately says, "Maple Sreet," which is correct. This is an example of Cued Recall
Research conducted by Kathryn Bock shows that specific syntactic constructions can prime later syntactic constructions. This indicates that people do what when speaking? Use the same sentence structures in later sentences that they heard in earlier sentences
Why is it difficult or impossible to taste your food when you have a head cold Colds impair the ability to smell which is important for sensing flavor
Complete this analogy: Vision is to retina as Hearing is to Basilar Membrane
What types of change is the listeneer most likely to notice in an unattended message? a change from a woman's voice to a man's voice
You stare at a picture of red and green squares. Your gaze switches to a blank white wall and for a moment you see an image of the painting with colors in opposite places. The cause of this is Opponent processes in the retinal red green ganglion cells.
A preschool child uses a toy steering wheel to pretend she is driving a car. This type of make believe play can occur when the child is capable of what skills? Symbolic thought
What statement is an example of a negative correlation? The more hours a teenager is employed, the lower his or her grades are.
Dorothy is not sure how to behave toward her supervisor when she first starts her new job. She watches her coworkers and copies their behavior, believing that this will help her act appropriately. Dorothy is showing signs that she is a high self monitor
The use of what is the strongest indicator that work has been designed or redesigned according to sociotechnical principles Self directed teams of workers
The use of what is the strongest indicator that work has been designed or redesigned according to sociotechnical principles Self directed teams of workers
What principle of Wundt would the Gestalt psychologists have found most objectionable? A perceptual experience can be analyzed into its separate component elements
Beginning in the late 1950s and early 60s, cog psychology became a powerful force w/in the field of psychology. What was a factor that helped in those years to spur this Cognitive Revolution foward? Development of digital computers
Hermann Ebbinghaus' studies of list learning were based on an assumption that most research psychologists today doubt. That assumption was that Studying and convenient example of learning or memory produces results that generalize to all examples
Severe injury to which of the following brain areas is most likely to be life threatening Hindbrain
What brain structures inhibits parental behavior in rodents? medial amygdala
Participants in an experiment responded passively when confronted w/ noise. Later, they continued to behave passively in a situation in which the noise could be terminated by performing an instrumental response. This situation best illustrates Learned helplessness
Charles Spearman introduced the concept of g to account for the observation that An individual's scores on various tests of intellectual performance correlate positively with one another
Sociobiologists are most likely to endorse what ideas? Many social behaviors have evolved and have a strong biological basis
When he heard a child screaming, Philip looked to see what other people were doing. Because they looked calm and unconcerned, Philip decided that nothing needed to be done and did not go help the child. This is an example of Pluralistic ignorance
When reading, literate adults vary least with regard to number of letters perceived during a given eye fixation
A quiet kid drops a book in her class. The teacher issues a reprimand: "don't make so much noise." Over the next week, Susan makes the noise once a day and then it increses. This illustrates what? Operant Conditioning
Research on the relationship between emotional disclosure and immune functioning indicates what? Expressing negative emotions is associated with increased immune function, whereas inhibiting negative emotions is associated with decreased immune functioning.
18yr old David received a large inheritance from his grandfather. Rather than using the money to pay for his tuition, he decided to buy a new sports car. According to Sigmund Freud, David shows signs of a Strong ID
In Gordon Allport's taxonomy of traits, some individuals develop a trait that is experienced as a ruling passion and dominates most aspects of that individual's behavior. In allport's taxonomy such a trait is known as Cardinal
Tara is 16yr teen who describes herself in one way with her family and another way with her firends and still another with her romantic partner. Tara's self concept is characterized as Differentiated
A patient with Korsakoff's amnesia is unable to identify the melodies that were already heard. If asked which melodies were preferred, however, the patient shows a preference for the familiar. This phenomenon supports the notion that Explicit memory function has a different neurological basis than implicit memory function.
The transfer of information from short term to long term memory is disrupted by bilateral destruction of what part of the brain? Hippocampus
Created by: Jessica Eng Jessica Eng on 2010-10-12

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