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Chapter6 vocab pt. 2

Chapter 6 "Tour of the cell" vocab part 2

mitochondrial matrix The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
mitochondrion An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
myosin A type of protein filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction.
nuclear envelope The membrane in eukaryotes that encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm.
nuclear lamina A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.
nucleoid A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
nucleolus A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes.
nucleus (1) An atom’s central core, containing protons and neutrons. (2) The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. (3) A cluster of neurons.
organelle One of several formed bodies with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
peroxisome A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
phagocytosis A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances, accomplished mainly by macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells.
plasma membrane The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell’s chemical composition.
plasmodesma An open channel in the cell wall of plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.
plastid One of a family of closely related plant organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
primary cell wall A relatively thin and flexible layer first secreted by a young plant cell.
prokaryotic cell A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
proteoglycan A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells, rich in carbohydrate.
pseudopodium A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding.
ribosome A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits.
rough ER That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
scanning electron microscope (SEM) A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample to study details of its topography.
secondary cell wall A strong and durable matrix often deposited in several laminated layers for plant cell protection and support.
smooth ER That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
stroma The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
thylakoid A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
tight junction A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells.
tonoplast A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the vacuolar contents, called cell sap; also known as the vacuolar membrane.
transmission electron microscope (TEM) A microscope that passes an electron beam through very thin sections; primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells.
transport vesicle A tiny membranous sac in a cell’s cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
vesicle A sac made of membrane inside of cells.
ultracentrifuge a high-speed centrifuge for segregating microscopic and submicroscopic materials to determine the sizes and molecular weights of colloidal and other small particles
Created by: lauren lou