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Neurology Block

All sorts of neurology questions and buzz words from Neuro block

Loss of consciousness, longer duration of 1 to 2 minutes and the presence of automatisms usually signifies what type of seizure? Complex Partial Seizure
What is the most common form of epilepsy in children? Partial Seizures
What type of seizure begins in both hemispheres? Generalized Seizures
Petit Mal, brief lapses of consciousness, disruption in speech or motor is what type of seizure? Absence Seizure
What type of seizure shows a long myotonic period where the child usually ends up falling or dropping due to loss of muscle tone? Atonic Seizures
MOst common convulsive disorder of childhood. Febrile Seizures
Grand Mal Tonic-clonic Seizure
Fifth Day Fits Benign Idiopathic Neonatal Seizures
Mental Retardation with mixed seizure disorder, most common in patients with infantile spasms. Lennow-Gastaut Syndrome
Juvenile Myoclonic Seizure Triad Generalized, Myotonic, Absence
First line treatment for Juvenile Myoclonic Seizures? Valproic Acid
Fixed, midsize pupils of 4 - 5 mmm signifies a problem where in the brain? Midbrain
Pinpoint pupils signifies a problem where in the brain? Pontine/ Pons
Unilateral, fixed and dilated pupil signifies a problem where? Is most likely compression of CN III.
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration Pattern (crescendo -> decrescendo) Hemisphere dysfunction
Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation (sustained deep breaths) midbrain to upper pons
Kussmaul (deep slow breaths) diabetic ketoacidosis
Apnea is a sign of what kind of problem? medulla
How to respond to an unconscious patient… STONED: Sugar, Thiamine, O2, Narcan, Evaluate, Differential Dx
Asymmetry in a coma patient, think… structural
Likely cause of intracerebral hemorrhage hypertension
Caused by occlusion of smaller, penetrating arteries, presence of fibrinoid Lacunar Infarctions
Most common cause of cardioembolic stroke atrial fibrillation
Beading of vessels within the brain is characteristic of what condition? CNS Vasculitis
A core of forever-lost brain cells surrounded by damaged brain cells that could still be repaired Penumbra
A resting tremor is associated with what condition? Parkinson’s Disease
An intention tremor is assoc. with a problem where? cerebellum
Drugs that help relieve the tremor of Parkinson’s Disease Anticholinergic
Main side-effect of anticholinergics that could make them countraindicated in the elderly population memory loss
3 anticholinergic drugs used for Parkinson’s Trihexiphenidyl, Benztropine mesylate, Diphenhydramine
What 2 NT can increase GABA to Globus Pallidus? Ach and Glutamate
DOPA is converted to Dopamine via… DOPA-decarboxylase
2 components that can prolong DOPA in the synapse Mono-oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors & Cartechol-ortho methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors
MAO-B inhibitors for Parkinson’s Selegeline and Rasagaline
COMT inhibitors for Parkinson’s Entacapone and Tolcapone
NMDA receptor for what? glutamate
What Parkison’s drug has a slight effect on NMDA receptors? Amantadine ( weak NMDA antagonist)
An acquired persistent, confusional state dementia
The clinical traid of confusion, gait disturbance and extra-ocular dysmotility point to which disease? Wernicke’s Encephalopathy (usually assoc. with alcohol & thiamine deficiency)
Infarcts or hemorrhages within mamillary bodies of hypothalamus Wernicke’s Encephalopathy
Extra-ocular dysfunction in Wernicke’s Ophthalmoplegia
Water is white on this imaging and it is best for showing pathology T2 Weighted MRI
Lacunar infarctions are due to what size vessels? small vessels
Decreased glucose metabolism esp. in the posterior cerebrum on PET scan Alzheimer’s Disease
On microscopic analysis, a patient is found to have neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. What is the most likely cause of these findings? Alzheimer’s Disease
What material are senile plaques made of? Amyloid (Amyloid Beta proteins or fragments of APP)
Anticholinesterase Inhibitors for Alzheimer’s Disease, they are … Donepezil, Galantamine, Rivastigmine
NMDA receptors control what substance? Calcium entry
Pick’s Bodies Pick’s Disease
There is atrophy of what two lobes with Pick’s Diease? Frontal and Temporal
A dementia with visual hallucinations Dementia with Lewy Bodies
Lewy Bodies in cerebral cortex Dementia with Lewy Bodies
Intention tremors are assoc. with which dementia? Dementia with Lewy Bodies
A resting tremor is assoc. with which dementia? Parkinson’s Disease
A CAG repeat on Chromosome 4, autosomal dominant Huntington’s Disease
A fatal dementia involving rigidity, clumsiness and myclonic jerks Creutz-feldt Jakob Disease (prion disease)
Positive 14-3-3 analysis of CSF CJD (Creutz-feldt Jakob Disease)
Spongiform encephalopathy involving microscopic vacuoles CJD
The clinical triad of gait disturbance (magnetic), urinary incontinence and cognitive disturbance are characteristic of what disease? Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Treatment of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus shunt
Speaking a heard word pathway Primary auditory area -> Wernicke’s Area -> Arcuate Fasciculus -> Broca’s Area -> Primary Motor Cortex
Speaking a written word pathway Primary Visual Area -> Angular Gyrus -> Wernicke’s Area -> Broca’s Area -> Primary Motor Cortex
Left Hemisphere tasks language and calculation
Right Hemisphere tasks drawing
Huntington’s Chorea is a clinical triad of … dominant inheritance, choreoathetosis, and dementia (usually results in death in 10 -> 20 years)
What structure is responsible for the coordination of movements during the action? cerebellum
What structure/s are responsible for planning movements? Basal Ganglia
A key sign of a cerebellar dysfunction Dystonia (uncontrollable muscle contractions)
Cells in the ventral horn at the edge of gray matter that monitor UMN and LMN interaction border cells
What is the function of the vermis? To fine tune motor control of axial musculature
What is the function of the paravermis (intermediate hemisphere)? lower extremity fine motor control
Portion of the cerebellum that control complex movement and is a part of the cerebrocerebellum tract lateral hemisphere
Tract found in the floccularnodual lobe vestibulocerebellum tract
The main afferent (input) pathway to the dentate nucleus to begin the trisynaptic circuit Perforant Pathway
The main efferent (output) pathway (CA1 & subiculum -> mamillary bodies -> ANT -> subcallosal cortex -> assoc. area of neocortex Fornix
Can’t make new memories Anterograde Amnesia
Can’t recall past memories Retrograde Amnesia
Removal of this organ results in an inability to transfer memory from short term to long term Hippocampus
What type of memories is the hippocampus responsible for? Explicit Memories
An event that after a presynaptic neuron is overactive, when the presynaptic neuron goes back to normal firing, the post synaptic neuron continues to fire at an increased rate Lone Term Potentiation
LTP (Long Term Potentiation) is linked with what function? Spatial Learning
This structure is responsible for emotional learning, fear, reward and implicit facial recognition Amygdala
What part of the brain is responsible for fear triggered sympathetic discharge? Lateral Hypothalamus
Amygdala to Parabrachial Nucleus increased respiration
Amygdala to Cingulate gyrus and locus coreuleus increased HR, NE, BP and fear
Amygdala to Periaquaductal Grey defensive behavior
Hypoemotionality, loss of fear, psychic blindness, hypersexuality and hyperorality are symptoms of what? Kluver-Bucy Syndrome (Bilateral temporolimbic lesions)
A direct receptor in the post-synaptic cell membrane is the… Ionotropic Receptor
An indirect receptor in the post-synaptic cell membrane is the… Metabotropic Receptor
What are the main 2 determinants of the degree of differential blockade of local anesthetics? pKa and lipid solubility
A low pKa with local anesthetics shifts equilibrium to the ionized form and leads to…. a slower/ delayed onset of action
Muscle spindle is sensitive to changes in? length
Golgi Tendon Organ is sensitive ti changes in? tension
Created by: 30112576