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MMB CH 1 Larson

Data consist of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses.
Statistics the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions.
Population the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest.
Sample a subset of a population.
Parameter a numerical description of a population characteristic.
Statistic a numerical description of a sample characteristic.
Descriptive statistics the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data.
Inferential statistics the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population. A basic tool in the study of inferential statistics is probability.
Qualitative data consist of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries.
Quantitative data consist of numerical measurements or counts.
Nominal level of measurement qualitative only. Data at this level are categorized using names, labels, or qualities. No mathematical computations can be made at this level.
Ordinal level of measurement qualitative or quantitative data. Data at this level can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful.
Interval level of measurement data that can be ordered, and you can calculate meaningful differences data entries. At this level, a zero entry simply represents a position on a scale; the entry is not an inherent zero.
Ratio level of measurement data that are similar to data at the interval level, with the added property that a zero entry is an inherent zero. A ratio of two data values can be formed so that one data value can be meaningfully expressed as a multiple of another.
Observational study a method of gathering data in which a researcher observes and measures the characteristics of interest of part of a population but does not change existing conditions.
Experiment a method of gathering data in which a researcher applies a treatment to part of the population and then observes and measures the responses of interest of part of a population.
Control group the part of the population to which no treatment is applied in an experiment.
Experimental units the subjects involved in an experiment.
Placebo a harmless, unmediated treatment given to subjects in an experiment; it is made to look like the real treatment.
Simulation a method of gathering data that uses a mathematical or physical model to reproduce the conditions of a impractical, expensive, or dangerous situation or process.
Survey a method of gathering data which is an investigation carried out by asking people questions by interview, mail, or telephone.
Confounding variable occurs when an experimenter cannot tell the difference between the effects of different factors on a variable.
Placebo effect occurs when a subject reacts favorably to a placebo when in fact he or she has been given no medicate treatment at all.
Blinding a technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or placebo.
Created by: Mrs. Brogan MMB