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Genetics chp 1-6

Genetics exam # 1

QuestionAnswer
What is a gene? A sequence of nucleotides that code for a specific trait
Basic concepts in Genetics The gene is the fundamental unit of heredity. Genes encode proteins and confer phenotypes. Genetic information is carried in DNA and RNA.
What is the relationship between genes, alleles, chromosomes, and DNA? Genes are on chromosomes. Genetic information goes from DNA to RNA to protein. Genes have multiple forms called alleles. Most traits are effected by multiple genes. Evolution is genetic change.
The importance of genetics Agriculture. The nature of diversity. Evolution. Medicine (diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, gene therapy, study of longevity). Environmental remediation
3 areas that geneticists study Transmission genetics. Molecular genetics. Population genetics.
Cell reproduction requires ________ _______ and ________. copying genetic material. seperation of copies. cell division
2 major types of organisms. prokaryotes (simpe cell structure) eukaryotes (nucleus and organelles)
3 domains of organisms Bacteria (prokaryotes), Archea (prokaryotes), Eukaryotes
Parts of eukaryotic chromosome telomeres, centromeres, origin of replication
what is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic reproduction Eukaryotes: mitosis and meiosis. Prokaryotes: binary fission
Genetic consequences of the cell cycle 2 cells identical to parent cell. new cells contain full compliment of chromosomes. each new cell contains half of the original cytoplasm and organelles.
consequences of meiosis and genetic variation 4 cells produced from each original cell. chromosome number reduced by half (new cells are haploid). new cells are genetically different
Gene a genetic factor that helps determine a characteristic
Allele one of two or more alternate forms of a gene
Locus specific place on a chromosome occupied by an allele
Genotype set of alleles possessed by an individual organism.
Heterozygote/homozygote an individual orgaism with two different alleles at a locus/ an individual organism with two same alleles at a locus
phenotype (trait) the appearance or manifestation of a character
Character (characterisitc) an attribute or feature
monohybrid cross cross between 2 parents that differ in a single chaacteristic
conclusions of Mendel's monohybrid cross 1 character is encoded by 2 alleles. 2 alleles seperate when gametes are formed. dominant and recessive traits. 2 alleles separate randomly into gametes.
Principle of segregation (Mendel's first law) Each diploid organism has 2 alleles for any characteristic. these 2 alleles segregate when gametes are formed, and one allele goes into each gamete.
The concept of dominance when two different alleles are present at a locus, only one (the dominant one) is seen in the phenotype
Probability rules Addition (used in "either/or" situations a sum of alternative probabilities). Multiplication (used in "and" situations a product of probabilities of independant events)
Binomial distribution P= ((n!)/(s!t!))x(a^s)x(b^t) ... P=overall probability. a=probability of event x. s=# of times event x occurs. b=probability of event y. t=# of times event y occurs. (a+b=1 and n=s+t)
Principle of independant assortment alleles at different loci seperate independantly of one another
Typical eukaryotic life cycle Gamete (haploid 1n) --> fertilization --> Zygote (diploid 2n) --> meiosis --> Gamete...
Sex determination system in grasshopper XX-XO ~ XX=f XO=m
sex determination system in mammals XX-XY ~ XX=f XY=m
sex determination system in birds/reptiles ZZ-ZW ~ ZZ=m ZW=f
sex determination system in plants genic system (autosomes)
sex determination system in Drosophila X:A ratio ~ 1.0=f 0.5=m
sex determination system in social insects (bees) n-2n ~ 2n=f n=m
why is the fruit fly a good model organism? small size. short generation time. lots of progeny. easy to culture in the lab. small genome. large chromosomes. many mutations available.
Complete dominance phenotype of the heterozygote is the same as the phenotype of one of the homozygotes
Incomplete dominance (includes additivity) phenotype of the heterozygote is imtermediate between the phenotype of the two homozygotes
Codominance Phenotype of the heterozygote includes the phenotype of both homozygotes
Penetrance percentage of individuals having a particular genotype that actually express the associated phenotype
expressivity the degree to which a character is expressed in an individual
Epistasis type of gene interaction in which a gene at one locus masks or suppresses the effects of a gene at a different locus
recessive epistasis recessive genotype at one locus masks the effects of genes at another locus
dominant epistasis dominant genotype at one locus masks the effects of the phenotype at another locus
3 domains of organisms eubacteria, archea, eukaria
why are humans the worst model organisms for genetic study? can't control matings, long generation time, family size is small
why are humans the best model organisms for genetic study solve problems related to us, we know the most about our own traits
autosomal recessive pedigree pattern equal frequency in males and females, skips generations
autosomal dominant pedigree patterm equal frequency in males and females, doesn't skip generations
x-linked recessive trait pattern in pedigree appear more in males, not passed form father to son
x-linked dominant trait pattern in pedigree females more affected, doesn't skip generations, affected fathers pass the trait to all daughters
y-linked trait pedigree pattern appear only in males, passed from father to all sons
dominant lethal alleles my be transmitted to progeny when the trait isn't expressed until later in life
concordance percentage of twin pairs in which both twins have a particular trait
How can concordance show genetiv vs. environmental effect on a trait higher concordance in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins indicated genetic inluence. less than 100% concordance in monozygotic twins indicates environmental influence
reasons for seeking genetic counseling genetic disease in family, child with genetic defect, older mother, husband and wife closely related, exposure to environmental toxins, results of prenatal tests, both parents known carriers
Dihybrid ratio; duplicate recessive epistasis 9:7
Dihybrid ratio; dominant epistasis 12:3:1
Dihybrid ratio; recessive epistasis 9:3:4
dihybrid ratio typical 9:3:3:1
How are humans studied in genetics? pedigree analysis
Why are humans the worst model organisms for study? can't control mating. Long generation time. Family size is small.
3 domains of organisms Eubacteria, archaea, eukaryia
Why are humans the best subjects for genetic study? solve problems relevant to us. We know the most about homo sapiens.
Autosomal recessive pedigree pattern equal frequency in males and females. Skip generations
Autosomal dominant pedigree pattern equal frequency in both sexes. Do not skip generations
x-linked dominant pedigree pattern females more affected. Doesn't skip generations. Affected fathers pass the trait to all daughters.
y-linked trait pedigree pattern appear only in males. Passed from father to all sons
x-linked recessive traits pattern in pedigree appear more in males. Not passed from father to son.
Dominant lethal alleles may be transmitted to progeny when the trait isn't expressed until later in life (Huntington's disease)
Concordance percentage of twin pairs in which both twins have a particular trait
How can concordance show genetic vs. environmental effect on a trait? higher concordance in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins indicates genetic influence. Less than 100% concordance in monozygotic twins indicated environmental influence
Reasons for seeking genetic counseling genetic disease in family. Have child with genetic defect. Older woman attempting pregnancy. Husband and wife closely related (or known carriers) environmental toxins. Prenatal tests.
Created by: Jess Darmofal Jess Darmofal on 2010-09-06



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