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RAD141-Chap 1b

RAD141-Chap 1B - Positioning Terminology

What does radiographic positioning refer to? the study of patient positioning to radiographically demonstrate or visualize specific body parts on image receptors (IRs)
What is a radiograph? a film or other base material containing a processed image of an anatomic part of a patient as produced by action of x-rays on an IR
What is the difference between a radiograph and an x-ray film? x-ray film refers just to the physical piece of material on which a radiographic image is exposed; radiograph includes the film and the image
What are radiographic images? a representation of the patient's anatomic structures, obtained and viewed as hardcopy (radiographs) or as digital images (soft-copy)
What are the 5 general functions of a radiographic exam? 1) positioning of the body part & CR alignment; 2) selection of radiation protection measures; 3) selection of exposure factors on the control panel; 4) patient instructions relating to respiration & initiation of the exposure; 5) processing of the IR
What are the 4 common planes used in radiography? sagittal (left/right parts), coronal (anterior & posterior parts), horizontial (axial) (any transverse plane passing at right angles to the longitudinal plane), oblique (either longitudinal or transverse, not parallel to sagittal, coronal, or horizontal
What are sections? What are the 2 main types of sections? "cuts" or "slice" images of body parts; longitudinal sections (lengthwise) in the sagittal, coronal, or oblique planes; transverse or axial sections (cross-sections) -> at right angles along any point of the longitudinal axis
What are the 3 common orientations or views used in CT and MRI images? sagittal, coronal and axial
What are the 2 planes of the skull? base plane (aka anthropologic plane or Frankfort horizontal plane) and the occlusal plane
How is the base plane of the skull formed? it is a precise transverse plane formed by connecting the lines from the infraorbital margins (inferior edge of bony orbits) to superior margins of the external auditory meatus (EAM)
How is the anthropologic plane used? in orthodontics and cranial topography to measure and locate specific cranial points or structures
How is the occlusal plane formed? it is a horizontal plane formed by the biting surfaces of the upper and lower teeth w/jaws closed; used as a reference plane of the head for dental & skull radiography
What is a projection? a positioning term that describes the direction or path of the CR of the x-ray beam as it passes thru the patient, projecting an image onto the IR
Describe the CR position in a true posteroanterior projection In a true PA, the CR is perpendicular to the coronal body plane and parallel to the sagittal plane (unless some qualifying oblique or rotational term is used to indicate otherwise)
What is an AP oblique projection? an AP projection of the upper or lower limb that is obliqued or rotated; it is not a true AP and must also include a qualifying term indicating which way it is rotated (such as medial or lateral rotation)
What are mediolateral and lateromedial projections? lateral projections described by the path of the CR; determining the medial and lateral sides is based on the patient in the anatomic position
What are the 8 most commonly used general body positions in radiography? supine, prone, erect (standing or sitting), recumbent, Trendelenberg, Fowler's position, Sim's position, and Lithotomy position
What are the 3 recumbent positions? dorsal recumbent, ventral recumbent, and lateral recumbent (right or left lateral)
What is the Trendelenburg position? a recumbent position with the whole body tilted so that the head is lower than the feet
What is Fowler's position? a recumbent position with the body tilted so that the head is higher than the feet
What is Sim's position? a recumbent oblique position w/patient lying on the left anterior side, right knee and thigh flexed, and with the left arm extended down behind the back
What is the lihtotomy position? a recumbent (supine) position with knees and hip flexed and thighgs abducted and rotated externally, supported by ankle supports
Besides body position, how else is the term position used in radiography? it can also refer to a specific body position described by the body part closest to the IR (obliques and laterals) or by the surface on which the patient is lying (decubitus)
What is the lateral position? side view; specific lateral positions described by the part closest to the IR, or that body part from which the CR exits; a true lateral must be perpendicular to a true AP or PA projection, otherwise, it's an oblique position
What is an oblique position? an angled position in which neither the sagittal nor the coronal body plane is perpendicular to the IR; described by the part closest to the IR
What are the 4 oblique positions? left and right posterior obliue (LPR, RPO); right and left anterior oblique (RAO, LAO)
How are obliques of upper and lower limbs further qualified? ther are correctly described as AP or PA obliques, but use either medial or lateral rotation as a qualifier
What is a decubitus position? Why are they important? lying down; lie on a horizontal surface; important for detect air-fluid levels or free air in a body cavity
How should the x-ray beam be positioned with a decubitus position? the x-ray beam is always horizontal
What are the 4 decubitus positions? right or left lateral, dorsal, ventral
How should right or left lateral decubitus positions be qualified? with AP or PA projection
What is an axial projection? describes any angle of the CR more than 10 deg along the long axis of the body
What are examples of inferosuperior projections? Superoinferior projections? inferosuperior => shoulder and hip; superoinferior -> special nasal bones projection
What is a tangential projection? What are some examples? describes a projection that merely skims a body part to project that part into profile and away from other body structures; ex: zygomatic arch projection, trauma skull projection (for demonstrating depressed skull fracture), special projection of patella
What is an AP axial projection - lordotic projection? a specific AP chest projection for demonstrating the apices of the lungs; aka apical lordotic projection; the long axis is angle rather than the CR
What is a transthoracic lateral projection? a lateral projection through the thorax; requires a qualifiying positioning term (right or left lateral position) to indicate which shoulder
What are dosoplantar & plantodorsal projections? dorsoplantar (DP) -> AP projection of the foot; axial plantodorsal (PD) is PA projection of the foot and is angled
What are parietoacanthial and acanthioparietal projections? parietoacanthial -> the CR enters at the cranial parietal bone & exits at the acanthion (junction of nose & upper lip); opposite is acanthioparietal; aka PA Waters and AP reverse Waters methods (for visualizing facial bones)
What are the submentovertex (SMV) and verticosubmental (VSM) projections? submentovertex -> for the skull & mandible; CR enters below the chin (mentum) & exits at the vertex (top of skull); verticosubmental projection, less common -> CR enters at top of skull and exits from the mandible
What are the 3 terms describing curvature of the spine? lordosis -> "swayback"; kyphosis -> "humpback"; scoliosis -> lateral curvature of the spine
What is hyperextension? What is abnormal hyperextension? extending a joint beyond the straight or neutral position; abnormal hyperextension for elbows or knees is extension beyond the neutral position -> not a natural movement for these joints and results in injury or trauma
What is flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the spine? flexion is bending forward; extension is returning to the straight (neutral) position; hyperextension is a backward bending
What is normal hyperextension of the wrist? normal hyperextension of the wrist is when the wrist is extended beyond the neutral position (aka dorsiflexion) -> used for viewing the carpal canal or carpal tunnel view of the carpals
What is acute flexion of the wrist? a full flexion of the wrist; required for a special tangential projection for a carpal bridge view of the posterior aspect of the wrist
What terms are used to describe "lateral flexion" of the wrist? ulnar and radial deviation of the wrist; deviation means "to turn aside"
What is eversion and inversion? eversion => outward stress movement of the foot @ the ankle; inversion -> inward stress movement of the foot, as applied to the foot, WITHOUT ROTATION of the leg
What do the terms valgus and varus describe? valgus -> bending of the part outward (away from) the midline -> eversion stress of the ankle; varus ("knock kneed"), bending of a part inward, toward the midline -> inversion stress of the ankle
What are medial and lateral rotation? medial rotation is a rotation or turning of a body part, moving the anterior aspect of the part towrd the inside (or median) plane; lateral rotation is a rotation of an anterior body part toward the outside (away from the median plane)
What is protraction and retraction? protraction is a movement forward from a normal position; retraction is a movement backward, or the condition of being drawn back; ex: protraction is moving the jaw or shoulders forward; retraction is the opposite
What is elevation and depression? elevation is a lifting, raising, or moving of a part superiorly; depression is a letting down, lowering, or moving of a part inferiorly; ex: raising shoulders is elevation; depressing the shoulders is lowering them
What is rotation vs. tilt? rotation is to turn or rotate a body part on its axis; tilt is a slanting or tilting movement with respect to the long axis
Created by: debmurph