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RAD141-Chap 1a

RAD141-Chap 1A - General Anatomy & Arthrology

What is the structural hierarchy from smallest to largest? chemical level (atoms, molecules), cells, tissues, tissues, organs, system, organism
What are the 4 types of tissues? epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
What are organs? various tissues joined to perform a specific function (ex: kidneys, heart, liver, etc)
What is a system? How many human systems are there? a group or an association of organs that have a similar or common function; there are 10 individual body systems
What are the body systems? skeletal, circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, nervous, muscular, endocrine, and integumentary
How many bones in the skeletal system? What are the studies of bones and joints called? 206 separate bones; study of bones -> osteology; study of joints -> arthrology
What are the 2 main components of the circulatory system? the cardiovascular organs (heart, blod, blood vessels) and the lymphatic system (lymph nodes, lymph vessels, lymph glands, and spleen)
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue skeletal, visceral, and cardiac
What is the locomotor system? the muscular and skeletal systems combined
How is the adult human skeleton divided? into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton
What does the axial skeleton consist of? the skull, hyoid, auditory ossicles, vertebral column, and thorax (sternum and ribs) - 80 bones
What does the appendicular skeleton consist of? all bones of the uper and lower limbs, and the shoulder and pelvic girdles - 126 separate bones; includes 2 sesamoid bones at the knee (patellae)
What are sesamoid bones? Where are they most commonly found? small, oval-shaped bone found in the tendons (mostly near joints); only patellae (largest sesamoid bones) are counted in normal skeleton; the posterior foot at the base of the first toe, in tendons near palmar surface of hand (at base of thumb)
What are the 4 classifications of bones? long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones
Where are long bones found? What are they comprised of? only found in the appendicular skeleton; consist of a body & 2 ends (or extremities)
What is the composition of a long bone? outer shell -> compact bone (cortex), body (shaft) contains a thicker layer of compact bone than the ends; inside -> spongy (cancellous) bone (contains red bone marrow); boyd is hollow - medullary cavity (fatty yellow marrow); periosteum covers bone
What covers the bone at the articulating surfaces? hyaline cartilage (aka gristle); the covering over ends of bones is called articular cartilage
What is the function of the periosteum? it is essential for bone growth, repair, and nutrition; blood vessels pass from the periosteum to the bone
How are nutrients delivered to long bones? a nutrient artery passes obliquely thru the compact bone via a nutrient foramen into the medullary cavity; these are near the center of the body of long bones
What are short bones and where are they found? short bones are roughly cuboidal and are only found in the wrists and ankles; consist mainly of cancellous tissue with a thin outer covering of compact bone; the short bones are: 8 carpal bones in each wrist; 7 tarsal bones in each foot
What are flat bones? Where are they found? consist of 2 plates of compact bone w/cancellous bone & marrow between them; examples include bones making up the calvarium (skull cap), sternum, ribs, and scapulae
What is the diploe? the narrow space between the inner and outer table of flat bones in the cranium
What is the function of flat bones? provide protection for interior contents and broad surfaces for muscle attachment
What are irregular bones? What are some examples? bones that have peculiar shapes; vertebrae, facial bones, bones of the base of the cranium, and bones of the pelvis
Where are RBCs produced? in adults, by the red bone marrow of certain flat and irregular bones, such as the sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and pelvis, as well as the ends of the long bones
What are the 3 functional classes of joints? synarthrosis - immovable; amphiarthrosis - limited movement; diarthrosis - freely moveable
What are the 3 classifications of joints bases on tissue type and subclasses of each? fibrous joints -> syndesmosis, suture, gomphosis; cartilaginous -> symphysis, synchondrosis; synovial
What are fibrous joints? lack a joint cavity; adjoining bones, nearly in direct contact w/each other, held together by fibrous connective tissue
What is a syndesmoses joint? only one is the distal tibiofibular joint (held together by the interosseous ligament); is is amphiarthrodial
What are sutures? found between bones in the skull; make contact w/one another along interlocking or serrated edges, held together by layer of fibrous tissue or ligaments; in adults are synarthrodial
What are gomphoses? a conical process is inserted into a socketlike portion of bone; only occurs between the roots of the teeth and the alveoli of the mandible and maxillae; amphiarthrodial
What are cartilaginous joints? lack a joint cavity and are held tightly together by cartilage; allow little or no movement; subclasses bases on type of cartilage -> symphyses or synchondroses
What are symphysis joints? have presence of a broad, flattened disk of fibrocartilage between 2 contiguous bony surfaces, forming relatively thick pads, capable of compression or displacement, making them amphiarthrodial; examples are the intervetebral disks & the symphysis pubis
What are synchondrosis joints? temporary form of joint wherein the connecting hyaline cartilage is converted into bone at adulthood; synarthrodial; examples are the epiphyseal plates between epiphyses & diaphyses of long bones & at the acetabullum (hip joint)
What are synovial joints? freely moveable joints, mostly of the upper & lower limbs, characterized by a fibrous capsule containing synovial fluid; diarthrodial (except for the sacroiliac joints -> amphiarthrodial)
What do the exposed ends of bones in synovial joints contain? thin protective coverings of hyaline articular cartilage; the joint cavity, which contains a viscous lubricating synovial fluid, is enclosed & surrounded by a fibrous capsule, reinforced by accessory ligaments, limiting motion in undesirable directions
What are the 6 types of movement in synovial joints? plane (gliding), ginglymus (hinge), trochoid (pivot), ellipsoid (condyloid), sellar (saddle), spheroid (ball & socket) (Paul Goes To Every Single Session)
What motion do plane joints make? What are some examples? plane joints make a gliding or sliding moition; ex: intermetacarpal, carpometacarpal, and intercarpal joints of the hand and wrist; also, right and left lateral atlantoaxial joints
What type of motion are ginglymus joints capable of? What are examples? hinge joints permit flexion and extension only; articular fibrous capsule is thin on bending surfaces, but strong collateral ligaments secure bones at lateral margins; ex: interphalangeal joints, knee, elbow, ankle
What type of movement do trochoid joints exhibit? What are some examples? pivot joints are formed by a bony, pivotlike process, surrounded by a ring of ligaments and/or bny structure -> allows rotational movements around a single axis; ex: proximal & distal radioulnar joints, joint between 1st & 2nd cervical vertebrae
What type of movement do ellipsoid joints allow? What are examples? condyloid joint moves primarily in 1 plane, w/a slight degree of rotation at an axis at right angles to primary plane of movement->flexion/extension & abduction/adduction -> circumduction; ex: 2nd-5th metacarpophalangeal, wrist, metatarsophalangeal joints
What type of movement do sellar joints allow? What are examples? in saddle joints the end of the bones are shaped concave-conves and positioned opposite to each other; same movement as ellipsoid joints -> flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, circumduction; best example is the 1st carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
What type of movement do spheroid joints allow? What are examples? distal bone of ball & socket joints are capable of motion around an almost indefinite # of axes, w/1 common center; depth of hip socket is greater -> more limited movement, but more stability; shoulder joint is less deep, greater movement, less stability
Describe a gliding joint have flat or slightly curved articular surfaces that slide over each other during movement; ex: carpal and tarsal joints, joints between the articular processes of the vertebrae
Describe a hinge joint: have a pully-shaped surface fitting a concave surface to allow an angular motion similar to a hinge; ex: elbow, interphalangeal joints
Describe a condylar joint: have a condyle fitting into a concave surface, allowing flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction; ex: metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints
Describe a saddle joint: the adjacent bone ends are shaped like a western saddle: convex in one direction, concave in the other; allows flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, & circumduction; ex: 1st carpometacarpal joints
Describe a pivot joint: a rounded bone end is encircled by a ring of cartilage or bone so that there is rotation or turning on one axis; ex: 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae
Describe a ball and socket joint: have a globelike head fitting into a cut-shaped cavity; ex: shoulder and hip joints
Created by: debmurph