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Sociology chapter 9

Absolute poverty A standard of poverty based on a minimum level of subsistence below which families should not be expected to live
Achieved status A social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
Ascribed status A social position “assigned” to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics
Bourgeoisie Karl Marx’s term for the capitalist class, comprising the owners of the means of production.
Capitalism : An economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits.
Castes Hereditary systems of rank, usually religiously dictated, that tend to be fixed and immobile.
Class A group of people who have a similar level of wealth and income.
Class consciousness In Karl Marx’s view, a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change.
Class system A social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristic can influence social mobility
Closed system A social system in which there is little or no possibility of individual mobility.
Colonialism The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period of time
Dependency theory An approach that contends that industrialized nations continue to exploit developing countries for their own gain
Dominant ideology A set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
Esteem The reputation that a particular individual has earned within an occupation.
False consciousness A term used by Karl Marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
Globalization The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas
Horizontal mobility the movement of an individual from one social position ot another of the same rank.
. Income Salaries and wages.
Intergenerational mobility Changes in the social position of children relative to their parents.
Intragenerational mobility Changes in a person’s social position within his or her adult life.
Life chances People’s opportunities to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences
Modernization The far-reaching process by which peripheral nations move from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies.
Modernization theory A functionalist approach that proposes that modernization and development will gradually improve the lives of people in peripheral nations.
Multinational corporations Commercial organizations that, while headquartered in one country, own or control other corporations and subsidiaries throughout the world
Neocolonialism Continuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countries
Objective method A technique for measuring social class that assigns individuals to classes on the basis of criteria such as occupation, education, income, and place of residence.
Open system A social system in which the position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieved status.
. Power The ability to exercise one’s will over others.
Prestige The respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society.
Proletariat Karl Marx’s term for the working class in a capitalist society.
Relative poverty A floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nation as a whole.
Slavery A system of enforced servitude in which people are legally owned by others and in which enslaved status is transferred from parents to children
Social inequality A condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
Social mobility : Movement of individuals or groups from one position of a society’s stratification system to another.
Status group : People who have the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class positions.
Stratification A structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society.
Underclass Long-term poor people who lack training and skills.
Vertical mobility The movement of a person from one social position to another of a different rank.
. Wealth An inclusive term encompassing all of a person’s material assets, including land and other types of property.
World systems analysis A view of the global economic system as divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and exploited.