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Stack #43199

Define the universe. The universe is everything that exists every where. This includes all matter and energy.
1 AU represents the distance between which two planets? How much is that in km? Earth and the sun. 150,000,000km
what is the distance of one LY in km? 9.47*10^12
how many AU are needed to make up one LY? 63000 times
when Polaris emits light, it is actually the star ____ years ago 466
how are galaxies formed together? by a force of attraction.
what are contained inside galaxies? stars, dust. clouds or nebulae
what is the diameter of the milky galaxy? its bulge? 100 000 LY and 10 000 LY
barred spiral galaxies contain_____stars younger blue stars
elliptical galaxies are _____shaped. egg
name the three types of galaxies. barred spiral, elliptical and irregular
how far is the Andromeda galaxy away from us? 2.2 million LY
what cluster does the milky way belong to? The local Group.
What is the Big Bang theory? A Theory explaining that the earth was once concentrated in extremely small volume. a HUGE explosion caused energy to prep ell in all directions. Within seconds, protons and neutrons where created.
what was the concentration of hydrogen and helium during the first moments of the big bang? 77% hydrogen and 23% Helium.
what are quasars? star like object that is extremely far away. They emit radio waves. They have a very large redshift
explain the relationship between velocity and distance. How does this relate to the big bang theory? Velocity is proportional to distance. Galaxies that are farther away from us seem to be moving faster, thus showing that the universe is expanding.
why did the microwaves found in 1964 point to proving the big bang theory? the microwaves came from different directions. This radiation was result of the far-out reaches of the big bang theory.
what is primordial helium? A substance that was found in the outskirts of the universe. This demonstrates the fact that hydrogen and helium were created during the big bang. Helium also does not emit from stars, showing thjat it must have come from the birth of the universe.
before 1993 the universe was said to be how old? Why did it change after this year? 10 to 20 billion years. The new technology of the hubble telescope allowed the age of the universe to be more accurate.
How was Hubble able to disover that the universe is expanding in every direction? though measuring various galaxies' redshifts.
if an object is moving away from us it is what colour? BLUE! ( reshift)
to accuraltly determine the age of the universe , one has to acuraltly try to determine what? the distacnes of far away galaxies.
what is a cepheid? a very luminous, pulsating variable star that is used to determine the duistacnes of far away galaxies
what is the cephied variable? apparent brightness / time
what did the hubble telesope measure? periods of pulsation of cephieds in distant galaxies.
How old is the universe concidered today? 12.5- 13.5 billion years old
Why was th hubble telescope created? On earth, telescopes must pper through the atmoshpere, which can dim a blur images. The HST was designed to peer into space, above the earth's atmosphere.
What was the problem with the HST? The images captures were blured. This was due to the fact the the largest mirror on the telescope was the wrin shape.
What does a high mass sequence star become? A supergiant
an planetary nebula becomes a(n)__________- white dwarf and a nova ( it switches back and forth)
what force is responsible for stellar evolution? gravity
gravitational force increases as distance_______ decreases.
The density of the particle increases , their gravitational attraction for one another________ increases
Is the earth self- sufficent? Yes, but also depends on the sun, moon and other parts of the solar system for energy
How much larger is the sun compared to the earth? 109.12 times
How many earths can fit inside the sun? 1 300 000
the sun contains more than ______ of the total mass of the entire solar system. 99%
how much hydrogen and helium does the sun contain? 2/3 H and 1/3 He
How long does light and energy take to the earth from the sun? 8min 20s
explain how energy is transferred from the sun to the earth In the extremely hot and pressurised core of the sun, hydrogen and helium fuse together through nuclear fussion. Through this process the sun losses mass. This loss of mass is transferred into energy, and is then transported very slowly from the core to
name all the parts of the sun. core, radiation layer, moving gases, chronosphere, photosphere, solar prominence, solar flare, sun spot, corona
From the earth, which part of the sun can we observe? The photosphere.
the more sun spots the ___________the climate hotter and more humid
photosphere + _________= solar atmosphere corona
Planets are luminescent. True of False? False
How long is an earth's rotation? How long is one revolution? Rotation= 24 hour revolution= 365.25 days
Name all the parts of the solar systems starting with the objects closest to the sun. Mercury, Venus , Earth, Mars, Asteroid belt, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus , Neptune, Kuiper Belt, Pluto, Oort cloud
where are the inner and outer planets divided. What is one theory about why it is there? The asteroid belt. It is said to be a planet that never formed due to the proximity of Jupiter.
Name the terrestrial planets. Earth, Mars, Mercury and Venus
What are Jovian Planets? Outer planets that are large, less dense, usually have rings, made of gas, and have more moons.
what is the formula for the titius- bode law. what is it used for? a=0.4+ (0.3 x 2^n) This formula is used for finding the distance of a planet from the sun.
What two planets do not obey the Tititus- Bode law? Neptune and Pluto
Describe Kepler's First Law. The planets orbit in elliptical ( more realistically circular) patterns around the sun.
Describe Kepler's Second Law. the planets move faster when closer to the sun
Describe Kepler's Third Law A planet closer to the sun has a shorter period than a planet further away from the sun.
What is a comet? A small body of rock, methane, ammonia and ice that either revolves around the sun in a long, elliptical orbit or only passes the sun once in case of a parabolic path.
What happens when a comet comes closer to the sun? It creates a gas tail that is pushed away from solar wind, and lights up when the particles react with the solar winds. p+ and e-. A dust tail that lingers behind and consists of dust and debris.
What it the origin of comets? Most likely from the Oort cloud or kuiper belt.
what is a meteor, meteoroid, meteorite, meteor shower? answer not available! sorry!
How is a meteoroid attracted by the Earth? Gravity
How many natural satellites does the Earth have? One. The moon!
When can we see the moon on Earth? When it reflects sunlight.
Why does cratering happen more on the moon? Because it has no atmosphere to protect it.
Why does the same side of the moon always face us? Because the moon is spinning on its own axis.
Name the phases of the moon. New moon, first quarter, full moon and last quarter
Name the two orbital periods of the moon and their duration. The sidereal= 27.3 earth days and synodic= 29.5 days
What does "tides" refer to? the alternating rise and fall of sea level within a day.
what are responsible for tides? the gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun.
Most locations in the ocean have __ high tides and __ low tides daily two and two
The gravitational pull of the moon is strongest on the side of the earth______ the moon. What results in this? facing. As a result, the ocean on the side of the earth facing the moon bulges slightly, causing a high tide within the area of the bulge. At the same time, another tidal bulge is created on the opposite side of the earth.
What are spring tides? the sun and the earth line up on each end, causing more gravitational pull. This happens 12 times a year.
What are neap tides? When the moon is on the other side.
The sun has a tidal effect on our planet, yet it is not nearly as noticeable as the moon's effects. Why? The moon is much closer in distance to the earth has the sun.
What is wrong with the universe? it is too young and part of it has been missing.
what is dark matter? the part of the universe that is not visible. 90% of the universe is dark matter.
when does a black hole form? when a really huge star collapses and condenses into a very small point.
Created by: kajoom