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Chapter 15 - ANT2410

Power, Conquest, and a World System

territory under the immediate political control of a nation state colony
unpaid labor required by a governing authority corvée labor
joint stock company chartered by Dutch government to control all Dutch trade in Indian/Pacific Oceans Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company also known by its Dutch initials VOC, for Verenigde Ostendische Compagnie
the Lords Seventeen, members of board of directors of Dutch East India Company Heeren XVII
firm managed by a centralized board of directors but owned by its shareholders joint stock company
agricultural plantation specializing in large-scale production of single crop to be sold on market monoculture plantation
strip an area of money, goods/raw materials through threat/use of physical violence pillage
Tirailleurs Sénégalais Senegalese Riflemen
army existing from 1857-1960 composed largely of soldiers from French W African colonies led by officers from Metropolitan France Tirailleurs Sénégalais
our world is result of __ __ processes that involved __ & __ of wealth & power large-scale historical; ebb; flow
probably appeared about 5500 years ago earliest writing
invented in China about 1000 years ago first movable type printing press
first European to use movable type printing press about 570 years ago Gutenberg
invented about 165 years ago telegraph
invented about 135 years ago telephone
invented about 90 years ago radio
invented about 70years ago TV
invented about 50 years ago satellite
invented about 25 years ago internet access
seeming to be present everywhere at once within last 10-15 years cell phones
our world today was substantially created by a specific instance of state-level societies expanding & contracting
most important factor in determining political/economic condition of world in past several hundred years expansion of N Europe & settled colonies of English-speaking subjects & citizens
world economic system resulted in __ __ both within & among nations enormous inequalities
world economic system created __ __ necessary for Industrial Revolution & development of capitalism financial accumulation
Ottoman Empire, Russia & Japan played critical roles in development of world economic system
expanding influence & power of W European states had the greatest __ __ on development of world economic system impact worldwide
had expanded steadily in 5 centuries leading up to 1400 Islamic powers
often made longer ocean voyages than Europe Arab & Chinese
stretched from Spain to Indonesia in/around 1400; improved on ancient scholarship; important discoveries in astronomy, mathematics, medicine, chemistry, zoology, mineralogy, & meteorology Muslim societies
believed China to be most powerful state in world Emperor Ch'ien Lung
at the end of __ __ __ Britain & other European powers virtually controlled China First Opium War
desire of pious to Christianize world was motivating factor for European expansion
archives of __ __ include more than 15,000 letter (written btwn 1550-1771) from people wanting to be missionaries Jesuit order
powerful but hidden Christian monarch Prester John
searched for mythical kingdom on Prester John, fountain of youth & seven cities of Cibola Europeans
chronicler of Spanish conquest of Americas & swordsman under command of Cortex Bernal Diaz del Castillo
poor & oppressed of Europe saw opportunities for wealth/respect in colonies
Europeans were aided in pursuit of expansion by rise of __ & __ class banking; merchant
Europeans were aided in pursuit of expansion by __ population growing
Europeans were aided in pursuit of expansion by development of __ caravel
Europeans were aided in pursuit of expansion by new ship better at sailing __ __ __ into the wind
had critical impacts on world's people monoculture plantation & joint stock company
key advantage Europeans had over other people was the __ they carried diseases
almost every time Europeans met others who had been isolated from European, African, Asian land masses they brought death & destruction in form of microbes
European tactics for searching for wealth were ancient
tow of quickest ways to __ __ were to steal it from others & get people to work for you for free accumulate wealth
no earlier nation had been able to practice war, slavery, exploitation, & inequality on the __ of European nations scale
European expansion, for 1st time in history of all other nations, linked entire world into __ __ economic system
Britons of almost all social classes expressed __ __ of world in their daily pattern of consumption economic unification
European economic unification created much of __ of Europe & many of today's industrialized nations wealth
European economic unification systematically __ much of world's populations impoverished
pillaging was one of the most important means of __ __ wealth transfer
Europeans were driven by search for __ __ precious metals
when Europeans found precious metals they moved quickly to __ __ seize them
precious metals belonging to indigenous people were sent back to Europe & __ placed under European control mines
1531 captured Inca emperor Atahuallpa & received 88.5 million in gold/2.5 million in silver as ransom Pizarro
early 17th century 58,000 __ __ forced into silver mining in town of Potosi in Peruvian Andes Indian workers
1500-1600 __ colonies in Americas exported 30 tons of gold & 25,000 tons of silver Spanish
after came to power in India, plundered treasury of Bengal sending wealth back to investors British East India Company
1860 __ __ west of Beijing was looted & contents auctioned off to looters for 260,000 pounds Summer Palace
art, artifacts, curiosities, & occasionally human bodies were __ around world & sent to museums & private collections in Europe stolen
plundered 7-ton head of Ramses from mortuary temple of Pharaoh Ramses II & (4) tombs in Valley of the Kings Giovanni Belzoni
Giovanni Belzoni was sometimes known as __ __ Belzoni The Great
sent to British museum where it remains today 7-ton head of Ramses
key element of European expansion; most notorious example African slavery, along with impressing local inhabitants, debt servitude, & other forms of peonage forced labor
Europeans forced both peopled whose land they conquered & their own lower classes into vassalage
probably exported more than 7 million African slaves to Islamic world between 650-1600 non-Europeans
Europeans practiced __ __ on larger scale than any people before them African slavery
between end of 15th/19th century approximately 11.7 __ were exported from Africa to Americas slaves
more than 6million slaves left __ in 19th century alone Africa
scholars estimate for every African slave successfully landed in Americas, __ __ __ other Africans died in process of slave, capture, holding, & transportation one to five
use of slave labor was __ __ for both slave shippers & plantation owners extremely profitable
slave labor created continuous __ & ___ in areas which slaves were drawn warfare; impoverishment
loss of so many people, violence, & political instability resulting from capture & transport of slaves __ __ African societies radically altered
__ __ __ was created by monoculture plantations demand for slaves
through 19th century __ was most important monoculture crop sugar
1701-1810 imported 252,500 slaves almost all of whom involved growing & processing sugar; island given over almost entirely to sugar production Barbados
most early European exploration was __ & __ by aristocratic governments or small firms financed; supported
by turn of 17th century __ & __ had established joint stock companies British; Dutch
by mid-17th century French, Swedes Danes, Germans & Portuguese had established __ __ companies joint stock
joint stock companies are __ of today's publicly held corporations predecessors
exploration & trade by joint stock companies were able to raise a great deal of __ rapidly, & business ventures could be __ than previously possibly capital; larger
aristocratic governments that dominated early European exploration were motivated, not only by money, but also by __ __ & desire for __ missionary zeal; prestige
joint stock companies pursued wealth with __ & __ that governments often lacked single-mindedness; efficiency
joint stock companies were frequently empowered to __ trade monopolize
joint stock companies were frequently empowered to raise __ & conduct ___ armies; wars
joint stock companies were frequently empowered to engage in __ __ diplomatic negotiations
empowerments of joint stock companies frequently had __ __ on societies they penetrated devastating effects
Dutch East India Company is a __ __ of a joint stock company model example
shares in VOC were available on __ __ & held by __ __ of Dutch society reasonable terms; wide cross-section
Dutch East India Company was empowered to make __ with local rulers in __ of Dutch Republic treaties; name
Dutch East India Company was empowered to __ lands occupy
Dutch East India Company was empowered to __ __ levy taxes
Dutch East India Company was empowered to raise __ armies
Dutch East India Company was empowered to __ war declare
governments were some degree __ to those they governed beholden
VOC interested solely in __ __ to its shareholders returning dividends
through 17th-18th centuries, VOC distributed __ __ between 15.5-50% annual dividends
VOC returned dividends on 40%/year for 6 __ years consecutive
through 17th century VOC used its powers to __ __ of many of Indian Ocean islands (Java, Sri Lanka, & Malacca seize control
VOC acquired right to control __ & __ of cloves, nutmeg, & mace) taking __ __ to maintain monopoly production; trade; brutal steps
cloves, nutmeg, & mace were the __ __ spices of Indian Ocean islands most valuable
1620s, almost entire population deported, driven away, starved to death, or massacred; replaced w/Dutch colonists who used slave labor to operate nutmeg plantations Banda
by 1670s Dutch gained control of all __ __ in what is now Indonesia spice production
acquired slaves through warfare, purchase, & levy from China, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, & E Africa VOC
17th century controlled most of central Java Maratram Dynasty
treatment of Chinese in Batavia is an example of the VOCs __ __ extraordinary brutality
burden of continual warfare & corruption/inefficiency forced VOC into __ __ financial difficulties
Heeren XVII were __ by Netherlands government in 1796 after investigation revealed corruption & mismanagement in all quarters dismissed
Dec. 31, 1799 VOC __ __ formally dissolved
Dutch client state of France Batavian Republic
other mercantilists trading firms organized by British, French, Germans & Portuguese, Danes, Swedes eventually __ or __ __ by their national governments dissolved; taken over
became one of sources for Industrial Revolution & rise of capitalism supply of wealth
British mutinied, overthrowing Mighal emperor of India 1857 The Great Mutiny
colonies were created when nations __ & __ political domination over geographically separate areas & political units established; maintained
European colony existed primarily to exploit native people & resources Belgian Congo in Africa
key goal of colonies was settlement of surplus European population Australia & N America
colony seized for control of strategic local, bordering Red Sea & controlled shipping through Suez Canal Yemen
colonized 1500-1600s Americas
19th century, gave Europeans & N American descendants advantages in technology & quantity of arms Industrial Revolution
relatively few Europeans settled permanently in colonies of Africa & Asia
Europeans, Africans, & Americans shared similar __ & __ diseases; immunities
in wake of contact with Europeans, 95% of population of __ __ died New World
Europeans saw the devastation from disease on Native Americans, as God's __ for them to populate the America's & was __ native population to make that possible intended; removing
New World natives lacked immunity to European diseases because many N American groups were too small to sustain such __ __ & therefore had no immunity to them crowd diseases
smallpox, influenza, tuberculosis require __ __ of populations large reservoirs
New World natives lacked immunity to European diseases because most crowd diseases originated in __ __ which were largely absent from Americas domesticated animals
__ epidemic killed up to 1/2 of Aztec population due to contact w/Cortes smallpox
__ __ was also decimated by disease due to contact w/Europeans Inca empire
disease swept across Central/South America __ __ of the Europeans in advance
__ of Native Americans had dire effects throughout the Americas die-off
resistance could not be effective for Native Americans due to __ populations of Europeans & __ populations of natives increasing; diminishing
first governor of Massachusetts Winthrop
Winthrop declared that settlers had __ __ to the land because it was __ __ fair title; vacuum domicilium
empty land; legal fiction created by Winthrop vacuum domicilium
beginning of 19th century industrialization enabled Europeans & Americans to __ __ in greater quantity & quality than any other people produce weapons
beginning of 19th century industrialization created __ __ for raw materials that could not be satisfied by Europe enormous demand
discoveries in __, particularly __ & __ drugs, improved odds of survival for Europeans in places previously considered deadly medicines; vaccines; antimalarial
by 1900 most nations in Americas had achieved __, but much of rest of world was under __ __ independence; colonial rule
effective, fast ways to get wealth & plunder mercantilists firms
using mercantilists firms to colonize an area required some level of __ expenditure government
government expenditures involved w/mercantilists firms' colonizations included government officials & troops to back them
government officials & troops to back them involved w/mercantilists firms' colonizations were paid out of __ __ government funds
European governments felt forced to assume colonial control because of __ surrounding collapse of involved mercantile companies (i.e. VOC/British East India Co.) scandals
European governments felt forced to assume colonial control out of fear that their __ __ __ were threatened, generally by other European nations national commercial interests
example of European governments felt forced to assume colonial control out of fear that their national commercial interests were threatened Berlin Conference partitioning Africa among European powers in late 19th century
Europeans used combination of __ & __ __ to force colonization on subject populations diplomacy; military conquest
Europeans created & used military forces of __ __ led by European officers to conquer areas they wished to colonize native troops
Tirailleurs Sénégalais is an example of the way in Europeans __ native troops to __ areas for colonization utilized; conquer
European __ & __ leaders often created colonies without full back of __ of their nations politicians; military; citizens
after European governments established colonies they had to __ both their own __ & __ __ the colonization was beneficial convince; populations; colonial subjects
European governments attempted to convince that a colonization was beneficial through cloaking their actions in ideology of social betterment
example of British attempts to convince that a colonization was beneficial by Rudyard Kipling the white man's burden of bringing civilization to the savage
example of France attempts to convince that a colonization was beneficial the population was told that it had a mission civilisatrice
civilizing mission that would savages in colonized areas & increase political/cultural power throughout the world mission civilisatrice
French government considered mission civilisatrice as rayonnement, which meant lighting the way for others
once colonies were seized they had to be __ and made __ administered; profitable
hoped that tax revenues from colonial subjects would support cost of colonial government & construction of various public works colonizing power
many cases tax revenues from colonial subjects were insufficient & __ were required to make up difference between colonial __ & __ taxpayers; income; expenses
colonies gave businesses based in colonizing country places in which to operate free of competition
colonies created __ __ __ for older British industries & newer French manufacturers, enabling __ __ for firms in these nations zones of protection; higher profits
costs of colonies were __ __ by subject colonial population & by colonizing-country taxpayers born unequally
windfall profits from colonialism went to __ __ __ operating in the colonies shareholders of companies
finding ways to extract taxes & create conditions in which corporations could make money often meant __ __ of indigenous ways of life systematic undermining
accounted for only small percentage of indigenous way of life trading
indigenous ways of life were drawn among __ __ & most of their production was for __ __ kinship lines; own consumption
colonial subjects had to be made to produce the goods that __ __ wanted & to __ in ways that would profitable to colonizers colonizing societies; labor
changing the __ way of life was a key problem in making colonies profitable natives'
control of local leaders, forced labor, forced production of particular commodities, taxation & direct propaganda through education were __ that colonizers used to change native way of life methods
seizing direct control of __ __ was expensive & foreign colonial leaders often lacked __ __ of local language & culture political leaders; sufficient knowledge
more often colonialists ruled directly through __ __ native leaders
promises of power/wealth & realization that colonial governments held reins of power drew colonial subjects to __ __ support them
needed for colonial powers to rule effectively well-organized chain of command
most often sympathetic to colonizers & were able to retain degree of power, although answerable to colonial authorities local elites
those __ to colonial rule were rapidly replaced unsympathetic
regions were precolonial relationships were __ posed more difficult problem for colonizers egalitarian
in egalitarian societies were there was no __ or __ __ colonizers created new chiefly offices chief or co-reigning chiefs
lumping together people with different traditions/languages, egalitarian societies, sometimes done by colonialists/missionaries to forge new ethnic groups
did not exist before era of colonialism, created by actions of colonial/post-colonial governments in central Ivory Coast of Africa Bete
policies of __ __ created preconditions for instability & violence indirect rule
ethnic groups created for purposes of colonial rule tended to __ when rule diminished fragment
one of most direct ways European governments tried to make their colonies profitable was forced labor, or corvée labor
until WWII most colonial governments insisted on __ __ from their subjects substantial labor
1926 French enacted a law permitting __ __ of labor for their W African colonies annual draft
compelled to work for 3years on bridge & road building, irrigation projects, & other public works by French's annual draft of labor conscripts
mortality rates high during 3years of forced labor making this one of most hated institutions of colonialism
natives resisted forced labor by __ __ or by __ authorities when such work was demanded hiding workers; fleeing
economic & social policies of colonial regimes often required natives to __ __ their culture radically alter
Portuguese colonial policy in __ forced almost 1 million peasants to grow cotton; controlled what they produced, where they lived, with whom they traded & how they organized labor Mozambique
by 1960s in Mozambique, brutality & terror used by colonial regime resulted in __ __ that continued into 1990s civil war
at turn of century each native owed government 40 hours of labor/month in exchange for token wage Congo
by time Belgium government stripped __ of his control on Congo 4-8million Congolese had starved to death/killed Leopold
included groups from Algeria, Morocco, Madagascar, Vietnam, Cambodia, & other French colonial possessions Tirailleurs military units
in E Africa British drafted & recruited King's African Rifles
in India British created entire army of colonial subjects drawn from ethnic groups the British considered particularly warlike
about 1.3 million of __ __ serves in WWI, primarily on Western Front but also in Middle East Indian Army
key mechanism for accomplishing population to work for colonial masters voluntarily or produce goods desired taxation
taxation forced colonial subjects into __ __ market system
taxes generally had to be paid in __ __, which native subjects could obtain only by __ __ colonist, or __ something that they want to but colonial money; working for; producing
participation in __ & __ __ was viewed as essential precondition for civilizing natives market; wage labor
taxation often forced colonial subjects into __ __ of dependency on market system vicious cycle
natives entered __ __ __ as producers of raw materials & consumers of manufactured goods global capitalist economy
often designed to convince subjects that they were the cultural, moral, & intellectual inferiors of those who ruled them colonial eduction
education in __ __ encouraged children to aspire to be like the ideal Englishman 19th-century India
children were directly taught to obey colonial masters France’s African colonies
school for hostages, created by Faidherbe in 1860s and requested newly conquered chiefs to send son to be educated in French W Africa colony école des otages
école des otages was eventually changed to school for chiefs, even though many students were still hostages école des chefs
at colonial schools the colonizing powers tried to create class of __ subjects who would serve as junior grade __ __ literate; civil servants
colonial schools taught students that they were __ __ than their uneducated countrymen more advanced
France’s African colonies, those who were assimilated & educated to French culture were known by colonials & themselves as evolues
evolues means evolved people
title of evolues increased perception of uneducated/unassimilated as being __ & __ backward; primitive
colonial schooling __ colonizer’s position & created __ educated class convinced of its superiority reinforced; subservient
origins & practice of __ __ are bound up in colonial era modern anthropology
products of 18th-century age of Enlightenment, romantic retrenchment of 19th-century, Industrial Revolution, birth of modern science, & other historical/philosophical forces anthropology & 19th-century colonialism
__ __ of 19th-century anthropologists described world in which all societies were evolving toward perfection evolutionary theories
evolutionary theories of 19th-century anthropologists shows elements of __ __ where anthropologists were systematizing knowledge & trying to discover laws of social development enlightenment rationality
evolutionary theories of 19th-century anthropologists shows elements of __ __, the idea that nations were moving toward perfection 19th-century romanticism
evolutionary theories of 19th-century anthropologists was a __ __ that could be pressed into service as __ for colonization convenient philosophy; rationale
one of most important impacts colonialism had on anthropology was determining location of fieldwork
in some cases, ___ may have played role in determining topics of anthropological research colonialism
tended to promote kind of anthropology where anthropologist speaks as active authority claiming objectivity in description of passive subjects colonialism & discourse of rationalism/science
1st ½ of 20th century colonial governments faced with political problems of governing their __ sometimes relied on info provided from anthropologists possessions
colonial officials generally __ anthropologists, believing they were too __ to colonial subjects mistrusted; sympathetic
1st ½ of 20th century most anthropological research was funded by __ __ with __ agendas charitable organizations; reformist
civil disobedience, changing political structures, & changing economic structures are the reasons colonized territories are granted independence
expansion of European influence probably had __ __ on cultures worldwide greatest effect
growing sugar was __ __ that created demand for African slaves in Americas critical thing
authors of our book argue that critical factor enabling Europeans to colonize successfully in 19th century was mass production of weapons
in colonies, education was most frequently aimed at training __ __ __ children of elites
idea that although nations were no longer colonized, many institutions of colonialism remained neocolonialism
main reason for __ __ __ in the Americas was disease rapid European success
notion that colonialism was a duty for Europeans and a benefit for the colonized civilizing mission
active possession of foreign territory & maintenance of political domination over that territory colonialism