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AP II chp 23.2

Respiratory and circulatory systems work together to regulate gas delivery by: regulating ventilation;altering oxygen carrying capacity and affinity;altering perfusion
What involves neurons in the reticular formation? the medulla and pons
Motor function:(control of respiration) helps control coarse limb movements; reticular autonomic centers regulate visceral motor functions(vasomotor, cadiac, respiratory centers)
Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG) inspiratory center
functions of DRG quiet and forced breathing
Ventral Respiratory Group(VRG) inspiratory and expiratory center
functions of VRG only in forced breathing - exercise
Apneustic center promotes inspiration by stimulation of the neurons in the medulla oblongata providing a CONSTANT STIMULUS
Pontine respiratory group(PRG) antagonises the apenustic center, cyclically inhibiting inspiration. This DECREASES tidal volume and REGULATES THE RESPIRATORY RATE
Absence of the PRG results in an: increase in depth of respiration and a decrease in respiratory rate
Control areas are clusters of what kind of cells that are excitable? neuronal cells
What receptor is on aorta leaving the heart? aortic chemoreceptors
What receptor is on carotid arteries going to the brain? carotid chemoreceptors
What are the 5 sensory modifiers of respiratory center activities? 1)chemoreceptors;2)baroreceptors;3)stretch receptors;4)irritating physical or chemical stimuli;5)other sensations
Chemoreceptors of respiratory center activities are: sensitive to PCO2, PO2 or pH of blood or cerebrospinal fluid
Baroreceptors of respiratory center activities are: in aortic or carotid sinuses are sensitive to changes in blood pressure
stretch receptors of respiratory center activities: respond to changes in lung volume
irritating physical or chemical stimuli of respiratory center actitivies: in nasal cavity, larynx or bronchial tree
other sensations of respiratory center actitivities: including pain, changes in body temperature, abnormal visceral sensations
What is the cranial nerve IX? GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE; from carotid bodies, stimulated by changes in blood pH or PO2
What is the cranial nerve X? VAGUS NERVE; from aortic bodies,stimulated by changes in blood pH or PO2
Receptors monitoring CSF are: on ventrolateral surface of medualla oblongata; respond to PCO2 and pH of CSF
Glomus cells contain what kind of channels? oxygen-gated K+ channels
List the steps of oxygen-gated K+ channels 1)oxygen sensor detects low PO2;2)closes K+ channels;3)cell DEPOLARIZES;4)causes release of DOPAMINE;5)stimulates sensory neuron
list the mechanisms in central chemoreceptors 1)CO2 CROSSES BLOOD/BRAIN BARRIER;2)carbonic anhydrase converts CO2 to HCO3- and H+;3)H+ stimulates receptor;4)stimulates ventilation
Hypercapnia an increase in arterial PCO2; stimulates chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata
Hypoventilation a common cause of hypercapnia;ABNORMALLY LOW RESPIRATION RATE allows CO2 buildup in blood; aka:decrease breathing rate and depth
hyperventilation results in abnormally low PCO2(hypocapnia); stimulates chemoreceptors to decrease respiratory rate; aka:get rid of CO2, increase breathing rate and depth
Created by: kueeck