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Chapter 10 - ANT2410


idea that gender characteristics are result of historical, economic, & political forces acting w/in each culture cultural construction of gender
theoretical perspective that focuses on describing & explaining social roles of women feminist anthropology
cultural construction that makes biological & physical differences between male/female into socially meaningful categories gender
ways in which gendered activities & attributes are differentially valued & related to distribution of resources, prestige, & power in a society gender hierarchy
cultural expectations of men & women in a particular society, including division of labor gender role
widespread term used for head covering worn by some Muslim women as part of modest dress hijab
alternative gender role in India conceptualized as neither man/woman; each person expected to follow his/her own life path, no matter how different/even painful that may be hijra
cultural construction of hyper-masculinity as essential to male gender role machismo
alternative gender role in Tahiti muha
question why in almost all cultures masculinity viewed not as natural state but as problematic status to be won through overcoming obstacles manhood puzzle
woman’s first menstruation menarche
gender system in which women’s status is lowered by almost exclusive cultural ID w/home & children, whereas men are identified w/public, prestigious, economic, & political roles private/public dichotomy
ritual that moves an individual from one social status to another rite of passage
biological difference between male and female sex
alternative gender role in native N. America; man who dressed in women's clothing, engaged in women's work, & often considered to have special supernatural powers & privileges in society two-spirit role
two-spirit role was formerly called berdache
alternative gender role in Oman on Saudi Arabian peninsula xanith
Arapesh, Mundugamor, & Tchambuli; examined masculine/feminine traits; women & men expected to act in ways American's considered both masculine/feminine Margaret Mead
both sexes acted in ways American's considered feminine- take care children/nurturing Arapesh
both sexes acted in ways American's considered masculine- aggressive, violent w/little interest in children Mundugamor
women major economic role& noted for sense of business shrewdness; men more interested esthetically - decorating themselves/gossiping; feelings easily hurt & sulked a lot Tchambuli
Mead found that many behaviors, emotions & roles that go into being masculine/feminine are patterned by culture
significant because reinforces central anthropological thesis Mead's work
in order to grasp potential/limits of diversity in human life, we must look at full range of human societies-particularly those outside Western historical, cultural, & economic traditions central anthropological thesis
nonindustrial, small-scale, kinship-based, more egalitarian societies, gender relationships clearly __ from those in West differ
indicates that very construction of sex/gender extraordinarily diverse, as are relationships between sex, gender, & other aspects of culture research on gender diversity
daughter had no sons, selected daughter to be like a man; 5yr performed "transformation ceremony" dressed like man, trained like male, & often developed great strength & became outstanding hunter subarctic Indians
for subarctic Indians being male or female included both __ elements & __ features biological; cultural
term sex in contemporary social sciences, particularly defines the __ differences & __ difference visible; related
gender is the term for __ & __ classification of masculine & feminine cultural; social
all cultures recognize at least two __ & two __, but some cultures recognize additional of each sexes; genders
emphasizes central role of gender relations as basic building block of culture & society current anthropological approach to gender
gender is central to social relations of __, individual & group __, formation of __ & other groups, & __ & __ power; identities; kinship; meaning; value
until 1970s central role of gender was __ & both ethnographical & anthropological theory were __ as result overlooked; skewed
gender, like sex, is "natural" or biologically determined; different roles, behaviors, personality characteristics, emotions, & development of men/women viewed as functions of different sexes, thus universal androcentric anthropology
meant that many important question about role of gender in culture & society were never asked assumed biological determinism
focused attention on cross-cultural variability in meaning of gender emergence of feminist anthropology
w/emergence of feminist anthropology, __ __ began to give way to view that gender is culturally constructed biological determinism
cultural construction of gender is idea that gender is established by __ norms & values instead of __ social; biology
cultural construction of gender emphasizes different ways culture thinks about, distinguishes & __ __ symbolizes gender
revised cultural construction of gender focused attention on __ changes in gender relations historical
revised cultural construction of gender focused attention on __ of gender in human development role
revised cultural construction of gender focused attention on __ of feminine/masculine in different cultures constructions
revised cultural construction of gender focused attention on connections between __ __ & other sociocultural patterns gender systems
revised cultural construction of gender raised questions about effect of European expansion on __ __ in non-European societies gender relations
revised cultural construction of gender raised questions about changes in gender relation with Europe & N America as result of industrialism, capitalism, & expansion of global economy
late 1970s, revised cultural construction of gender, research & reinterpretation of older ethnographies found importance in cultures that recognized more than 2 genders & where __ & __ were defined differently than in US heterosexuality; homosexuality
view of sex & gender as system of 2 __ & __ categories is taken for granted by most social sciences opposing; unchangeable
indicates sex & gender are not necessarily or universally viewed as identical & limited to system of male/female opposites cross-cultural perspective
members of either sex can fill male gender roles; both women/men could use wealth to take titles & acquire wives (woman-woman marriages) Igbo of Nigeria
attempted to eliminate woman-woman marriage in Africa Christian missionaries
still practice woman-woman marriage; female husband considered to be man & adopts aspects of male gender role, i.e. participation in male initiation & public political discussions Nandi of Kenya
has been reported for more than 30 African groups presence of female husbands
in woman-woman marriage relationship between female husband & wife is not sexual
neither man nor woman alternative gender roles
Zapotec cultures of Oaxaca (southern Mexico); physically male individual who dresses & behaves in feminine manner; they may be seen as 3rd gender; may do certain kinds of women’s work, but others do male work muxe
gender roles in which men take on some attributes of women & classified as in-between gender xanith, two-spirit, mahu, muxe, & hijra
there also existed __ two-spirit people female
alternative-gender people were highly valued to the Zuni
form, frequency, & cultural specificity of alternative sex/gender roles are not __ __, but appear to be woven into cultural patterns random occurrences
cultures differ on sex/gender diversity in __ for constructing sex/gender variation criteria
cultures differ on sex/gender diversity in extent to which variation is __ &/or __ recognized; ritualized
cultures differ on sex/gender diversity in degree to which sex/gender transformations considered to be __ &/or __ complete; irrevocable
cultures differ on sex/gender diversity in association of sex/gender __ with males & females transformations
cultures differ on sex/gender diversity in __ __ of alternatives sexes/genders special functions
cultures differ on sex/gender diversity in __ or __ placed on variations value; stigma
anthropologists attempt to explain __ & __ of sex/gender alternatives occurrence; form
sex/gender diversity associated w/ideology that recognizes all individuals as having own special characteristics, incl. sex/gender variations some N American groups or in Polynesia
less concern for individual's private life as long as he/she observes social obligations in public, so that sex/gender diversity is not severely stigmatized Thailand
sex/gender alternative of hijra related to Hindu philosophy of dharma
Hindu philosophy of dharma has ability to incorporate cultural __ & __ to larger extent that Western religions contradictions; ambiguities
in some cases appear to be related to cultural systems w/relatively low gender differentiation sex/gender alternatives
gender differentiation is high in Brazil
sex/gender alternatives appear in __ cultures & __ __ religions where transformations of all kinds are common, such as humans into animals & vice versa African; African diasporic
sex gender alternative frequently found & androgyny considered sacred & powerful in southeast Asian island cultures
sex gender alternative frequently found where continuation of patrilineage central to society's kinship structure, as in Balkans
sex gender alternatives in Ibo of Nigeria is one way of making sure there are people to fill all important kin positions by permitting females to take on __ __ & other __ __ __ male roles; male gender characteristics
anthropology documents & tries to explain __ by drawing on ethnographic record & related __ of culture & society diversity; aspects
human sexual activity is most likely to be viewed as doing what comes naturally
demonstrates that every aspect of human sexual activity patterned by culture & influenced by learning, sometimes in contradictory/paradoxical ways cross-cultural perspective on sexual activity
culture patterns the __ __ of different peoples to different parts of body habitual responses
learned to kiss from Europeans; before this contact they began sexual intimacy by sniffing Samoans
natural & pleasant occupation for 2 who are fond of each other is to inspect each others' hair for lice & eat them; could gather wild foods as prelude to sexual activity Trobrianders
rite of passage for every adolescent male incorporates same-sex activity in form of fellatio, believed only men can create men through transfer of semen; boys live away from parents in men's cult house during initiation; relationships not seen homosexual Sambia of Papua New Guinea
age which sexual response believed to begin/end, ways people make themselves attractive, importance of sexual activity in life, variation according to gender sexuality cultural variations
one of most sexually naive of world's societies; sex never discussed at home when children near; practically no sexual instruction by parents to children; after marriage nature takes its course Inis Beg
sexual intercourse one of major interests in life; sex not discussed at home by daughter by elders of group; sex takes place in private but has public reference Polynesians of Mangia
Inis Beg women expected to endure not enjoy intercourse because refusal is considered mortal sin by Roman Catholic Church
Inis Beg female orgasm is considered deviant behavior
in Inis Beg, __ of sexes begins early & lasts into adulthood separation
virtual absence of sexual foreplay, belief sexual activity weakens a man, absence of premarital sex, high % of celibate males, & late age of marriage cultural patterns of sexual repression of Inis Beg
study people of Inis Beg John Messenger
among Polynesians of Mangia __ __ have 2-week formal instruction about techniques of intercourse followed by approved experience with __ __ adolescent boys; mature woman
among Polynesians of Mangia boys/girls should not bee seen in public together but almost all have had intercourse before marriage
when gender ideologies make male/female sexuality distinctions, likely to use distinction as basis for gender hierarchy
gender hierarchy usually centers on social control of women's sexuality
seclusion of women, cultural emphasis on honor/shame as related to female sexuality, control by men/state & organized religion over marriage, divorce, adultery, & abortion social controls of women's sexuality
female circumcision in some African societies, Chinese footbinding, gang rape in US, sati, & eating disorders in US are examples of __ __ of women's sexuality social controls
Hindu practice of woman burning herself on her husband's funeral pyre sati
adolescence understood as distinct stage of life associated w/physiological change of puberty, as well as emotional changes United States
finding that idealism, psychic conflict, & rebellion against authority did not occur in Samoa Coming of Age in Samoa - Margaret Mead
in Samoa, individual's transition from childhood to adulthood involved a gradual increased participation in society, with little psychological trauma
viewed rites of passage as way of publicly & ceremonially acknowledging change of social roles, or passage from one social group to another Arnold Van Gennep
function of rites of passage was to reduce potentially __ __ of such transitions on both society & individual by formalizing & ritualizing them traumatic effects
male initiations led anthropologists to focus attention on possible __ & __ functions psychological; sociological
held that male initiation rites primarily expressed & affirmed enduring order of male relationships & male solidarity sociological theories
in some societies male initiations serve to __ __ male dominance culturally validate
another function of male initiations is __ of culture transmission
in male initiations __ __ reinforced by dramatizing it value in public context social order
by taking child out of home initiation rites emphasized importance of citizenship
based on Oedipus complex; initiations rituals seen as symbolic means of mastering universal conflicts generated by boys' ID w/mothers from whom they must separate from to carry out mal adult responsibilities Freudian psychological theory
showed male initiation rites more likely to occur in cultures where boys have strong ID w/mothers & hostility towards fathers; necessary to ensure development of adequate male role John Whiting
explain initiations rites as symbolic reactions by males to envy of female procreative ability & mother-son bond; particularly in those w/bloodletting psychological theory
noted male initiation rites frequently involve male ritualizing birth & taking over, as collective group, functions women perform naturally Margaret Mead
described male initiation rights of Sambia; men's symbolic control over rebirth of boys, making them into men; long process of initiation incl beating/whippings, before regarded as men Gilbert Herdt
viewed ordeals, taboos, & solemnity of initiations rites as essential to communicating seriousness of life & duties of initiates Radcliffe-Brown
sociological & psychological initiation rites __ each other complement
female __ rights are generally performed for individuals at menarche initiation
found girls' initiation rites more likely in societies in which girl continues to lice in mother's home after marriage; suggests way of publicly announcing girls' status change Judith Brown
explain elaborate girls' initiation rite called Chisungu by saying that they make girls clever, which means to be intelligent & socially competent & to have knowledge of etiquette Bemba women
female initiation rites are most productively analyzed on their own terms
female initiation rites emphasize those qualities that will help women be strong wives who can help husbands & rear children, strengthen fortitude, & provide capacity for hard work helping husbands gather wealth Yangoru Boiken
__ __ of girls' initiation rites may refer not only to male-female sexual relations & biological reproduction, but also __ of society sexual symbolism; reproduction
move through individuals through successive stages of life processual
studies emphasize initiation rites are processual Papua New Guinea
girls' transition to adulthood does not end w/puberty rite; series of rite celebrating reproduction, culminating in marriage & birth of 1st child Murik
provides new insights into ritual manipulation of body that is often central to these ceremonies analysis of female initiation
ceremonies may include ordeals, scarification, circumcision, & infibulation female initiations
stitching together of vulva, leaving small opening for passage of urine & menstrual blood infibulation
one form of female power, manifest in procreation bodily attractiveness
exchange of valuables plays important role in female initiations; initiate displays wealth parents/clan contributed significantly influencing bridewealth negotiations Manam
symbolic significance test of initiate's preparation for adulthood & permanent signs of change of status female ritual manipulation of body
Manam wealth displayed affects the __ __ of kin group who sponsor it social reputation
includes construction of masculinity in which control of female sexuality is central; women are the devil Andalusia
biblical story of Eve justifies view that men are more virtuous than women, more pure & closer to God San Blas
husbands fear women that drive them to premature death by sapping their strength through demands for frequent sexual activity & heavy physical labor San Blas men
go through turbulent adolescent period of heavy drinking; become know as Weekend Warriors young Trukese men
define in terms of competitiveness, assertiveness, risk-taking in face of danger, physical strength; no initiation rituals, males must continually demonstrate manhood in public arena Truk masculinity
ethnography on island of Truk Mac Marshall
described patterns of manhood among Mehinaku; male's preoccupation w/public display of manhood to culturally conditioned defense against castration anxiety Thomas Gregor
in order to compensate for their fears of castration men feel compelled to demonstrate their masculinity at every opportunity Mehinaku
importance of machismo in resolving male ambivalence; such cultural patterns help ensure men will fulfill roles as procreators, providers & protectors of families David Gilmore
1st problem w/universalist view of masculinity, by Gilmore, is it does not recognize __ __ __ within a culture, as well as differences among cultures pluralities of masculinities
2nd problem w/universalist view of masculinity, by Gilmore, is the __ __ between men/women in society power differences
points out the as masculinity becomes more central to gender research theoretical questions will become more important part of ethnographic research agenda Don Conway-Long
one dimension of imbalance between power of men & women is gender violence
gender roles include expectations about __ __ of men & women natural abilities
gender roles include expectations about __ considered suitable for each sex occupations
gender roles include expectations about difference in __ & __ of men/women temperament; personality
gender roles include expectations about kinds of __ most __ for men/women behavior; appropriate
gender roles include expectations about __ towards themselves & others attitudes
clearly related to one another because access to marital resources, prestige, power, & autonomy depend significantly on what one does/allowed to do in society gender roles & hierarchy
private/public dichotomy emerged most sharply in __ __ 19th-century capitalist society highly stratified
native __ groups in N America were among the most gender egalitarian societies foraging
contemporary anthropological approach to gender emphasizes central role of gender relations as a basic building block of culture
area of the world most associated with the two spirit is native societies of North America
omen's hunting among the Agata illustrates that demands of child rearing can be adapted to economic needs
rise of plow agriculture has generally __ women's status lowered
Margaret Mead was an important early cultural anthropologist who emphasized the importance of culture in gender behavior
early critic of private/public dichotomy as key to women's status; widespread male dominant attributed to economic factors; comparative examination of foraging/horticultural societies Ernestine Friedl
Friedl noted key factor in women's status was degree to which they __ distribution & exchange of goods/services outside of __ __ controlled; domestic unit
Friedl argued that in foraging societies because men exercised control over __ __ __ in larger community that gave them more power & status in society distribution of meat
Friedl argued that in horticultural societies men cleared land, thus in position to control __ __ __, putting them in higher position of power allocation of land
Friedl suggested that because care of small children can be shared within group women's low status cannot be explained in their obligations in child rearing
cultural norms regarding family size & systems of child care are arranged to conform with women's productive work
Montagnais egalitarian before European contact demonstrating European expansion led to gender inequalities Eleanor Leacock
Leacock's work led to greater focus on changes in gender relations wrought by European encounter
controlled cross-cultural comparison to ascertain whether male dominance was universal & if not under what conditions it emerged Peggy Sanday
Sanday concluded that male dominance correlated with ecological stress & warfare
Sanday showed that where survival of group rests on more male actions, such as warfare, women __ male dominance for sake of __ & __ __ accept; social; cultural survival
women make important economic contribution to households through hunting; carry nursing infants on their backs during forest trips Agta