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Chapter 9 - ANT2410

Marriage, Family, and Domestic Groups

process by which senior family members exercise a great degree of control over the choice of their children’s spouses arranged marriage
system under which a married couple is expected to live with husband’s mother’s brother avunculocal residence
system under which a married couple has the choice of living with husband’s/wife’s family bilocal residence
kinship networks occasioned by divorce & remarriage in US which include previously divorced spouses and their new marriage partners blended family
cultural rule that a man must work for his bride’s family for a variable length of time either before/after marriage; occurs mainly in foraging societies bride service
goods presented by the groom’s kin to bride’s kin to legitimize a marriage; most common form of marriage exchange bridewealth
bridewealth formerly called “bride price”
aggregate of nuclear families linked by a common spouse composite (compound) family
relationship between a husband and wife formed by marriage conjugal tie
related by blood consanguineal
children of a parent’s siblings of opposite sex; statues extend beyond 1st cousins, incl. mothers mother's brother's daughter's daughter cross cousins
persons living in the same house, usually, but not always members of a family domestic group (household)
presentation of goods by bride’s kin to the family of the groom or to couple dowry
rule prescribing that a person must marry within a particular group endogamy
group within which one is not permitted to marry exogamous group
rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group exogamy
family based on blood relations extending over 3+ generations; consists of 2+ lineally related kinfolk of same sex & their spouses/offspring, occupying single household or homestead & under authority of a household head extended family
custom whereby a woman marries a man and his brothers fraternal polyandry
prohibitions on sexual relations between relatives incest taboos
custom whereby a man marries the widow of a deceased brother levirate
customs, rules, & obligations that establish a socially endorsed relationship between adults & children, & between kin groups of married partners marriage
lineage formed by descent in the female line matrilineal
system under which a husband lives with his wife’s family after marriage matrilocal residence
rule that permits a person to be married to only one spouse at a time monogamy
system under which a couple establishes an independent household after marriage neolocal residence
family organized around conjugal tie (relationship between husband & wife) & consisting of a husband, a wife, & their children nuclear family
children of a parent’s same-sex siblings (mother’s sisters, father’s brothers) parallel cousins
society that reckons descent through the male line patrilineal
system under which a bride lives with her husband’s family after marriage patrilocal residence
rule permitting a woman to have more than one husband at a time polyandry
rule allowing more than one spouse polygamy
rule permitting a man to have more than one wife at a time polygyny
form of polygyny in which a man marries sisters; mechanism to minimize conflicts between co-wives sororal polygyny
custom whereby, when a man’s wife dies, her sister is given to him as a wife sororate
nuclear family with a dependent adult added on stem family
variety of reproductive technologies in which a woman helps a couple to have a child by acting as a biological surrogate, carrying an embryo to term surrogate motherhood
unlike in most cultures, a major function of nuclear family in US is to provide main source of __ __ emotional satisfaction
if you live in a society that practices exogamy, you must marry someone of a(n) __ social group different
parallel cousin marriage is found mainly among Muslim Arabs of __ __ North Africa
main function of bridewealth is to __ the marriage legitimize
an important change in the US family over the past 50 years is more women are working outside the home
marriage is way most societies arrange for products & services of men & women to be __ & for the care of __ exchanged; children
in studying marriage, family & household, anthropologists pay attention to __ & __ rules; realities
__ rules & __ of family structure are related to cultural values residence; ideals
need to regulate __ __ is among foremost requirements of human animal sexual access
if not regulated & channeled into table relationship that are given social approval, __ __ could be source of serious conflict sexual competition
differences in strength & mobility, as well as woman's __ __ led to a general gendered division of labor in nonindustrial societies biological role
vast array of __ __ fulfill monogamous heterosexual marriage in satisfactory ways family types
woman's children, whether/not marries become full legitimate members of her matriclan Navajo
woman-woman marriage found; barren women may divorce husband & take another woman for her wife & arrange for surrogate to impregnate this woman Nuer & some African groups
children born from Nuer woman-woman marriages become members of the __ woman's natal patrilineage and refer to her as their __ barren; father
royal power was importantly sustained by multiple wives; when shortage of marriageable women bridewealth paid for young man; 2 men socially recognized as married & have sexual relations Azanda
normative idea of family is generally the nuclear family; accounts for only minority of families United States
in many societies ties between husband & wife are __ __ very loose
high divorce rate, increased # of same-sex commitments/domestic partnerships, surrogacy, large # of individuals living in long-term relationships w/out marriage, married but remain childless all challenge dominance of nuclear family & primary cultural model
most basic tie from __ __ appears to be that of mother & child cross-cultural perspective
generally played by mother's husband, but may be mother's brother, mother's female husband or even whole community provisioning & protective role
all societies have a(n) __ taboo incest
American's theoretically choose their own mates based on __ __ & complex of feelings called __ __ personality qualities; romantic love
in most societies marriage is more a link that binds two __ or __ groups together families; kinship
key purpose of __ marriages is to forge or continue __ between two families or kinship groups arranged; alliances
woman expected to live in a joint family; demeanor of submissiveness & modesty essential India
marriage broker; has more info about wider network of families than any one family can have go-betweens
arranged marriage system seems to become __ __ as societies urbanize & industrialize less rigid
in societies w/arranged marriages families & larger kin groups have great deal of __ over marriage & choice of spouse control
important __ __ guide arranging of marriages w/varying degree for individual variations cultural rules
kinship rules, ideals of family structure, transfer of property at marriage, & core cultural values are __ & __ patterns are closely related to choosing a mate social; cultural
because sexual access is one of most important rights conferred by marriage, incest taboos effectively __ __ among certain kin prohibit marriage
practices brother-sister marriage Egyptians, Hawaiians, & Inca of Peru
probably serves to keep family wealth & power intact & limit rivalries for succession to kingship brother-sister marriages
proposed in late 19th century; holds that mating between close kin produces deficient, weak children & generally harmful to species inbreeding avoidance theory
incest taboo is __ because it limits inbreeding adaptive
disadvantaged from __ more likely to appear as result of primary relatives mating inbreeding
mother-son, father-daughter, sister-brother are considered primary relatives
not clear whether inbreeding effect would in observable in __ societies premodern
believed desire for sexual relations within family is very strong; suggested most important function of incest taboo is preventing disruption within nuclear family Malinowski & Freud
argued that as children grow into adolescence, natural to attempt satisfying developing sexual urges within group of people emotionally close to then Malinowski
if inbreeding were allowed, __ __ within family would be disrupted as members compete for sexual partners role relationships
according the Malinowski & Freud's theory, incest taboo arose to __ attempt to satisfy sexual desires within family & to direct such desires __ repress; outward
regulation of sexual competition between family members is a(n) alternative to incest taboo
Malinowski's theory suggest why incest taboo exists between parents & children, but not __ __ _ between siblings or why should be __ to nuclear family prohibition of sex; extended
stresses adaptive value of cooperation among groups larger than nuclear family; incest taboo forces people to marry outside family, thus joining families together in larger sexual community alliance theory
alliance theory really concerns __ rather than __ __ marriage; sexual relations
in other animal species, incest prevented by __ __ members from family group as they reach sexual maturity expelling junior
seems to be most efficient/effective means of promoting genetic variability, familial harmony, & community cooperation familial incest taboo
provided the alliance theory Levi-Strauss
marriage rules that work together to define acceptable range of marriage partners exogamy & endogamy
prohibitions on incest produce an almost __ __ of exogamy within the primary family group of parents & children, & between siblings universal rule
exogamous rules also apply to groups __ than the nuclear family larger
most often __ __ based on blood relationship are exogamous descent groups
incl. reduction of conflicts over sex within cooperating group & alliances between groups larger than primary family advantages of exogamy
reduction of conflicts over sex within cooperating group & alliances between groups larger than primary family are of great __ __ for humans adaptive significance
intergroup __ & __ are among most important kinds of relationships established by marriage rights; obligations
exchanged women in order to live in peace w/one another & extend social ties of cooperation early hunting & gathering bands
system of exchange & alliance between groups that exchange wives is an outstanding feature of contemporary foragers
horticultural people of Papua New Guinea; keeping one's own women for oneself is no advantageous Arapesh
among Arapesh __ does not make sense incest
studied Arapesh Margaret Mead
rules of exogamy may apply to the village peasant societies
man must take wife from outside of his village; through exogamy village becomes center in kinship network that spreads over hundreds of villages northern India
because wives will come from many different villages, typical Indian village has a __ __ cosmopolitan character
exogamy affects quality of Indian __ __ family life
in India the __ is an endogamous group caste
in India a person must marry someone __ the caste or __ specific section of caste to which he/she belongs within; within
in US __ group & __ classes tend to be endogamous racial; social
in past __ __ was enforced by laws in many US states racial endogamy
opportunity, cultural norms, & similarity of lifestyle all contribute to maintain endogamy in US __ __ social classes
religious group in US, in which endogamy is important rule Amish
important basis for choosing marriage partners classifications of kin
some societies have rules about __ __ of relatives from which marriage partners are drawn preferred categories
of "cousins", children of siblings at parental generation, who are in fact biologically related but who may not culturally be defined as such preferred marriage partners
common form of preferential marriage rules cross-cousin marriage
__ cousins are rarely preferred marriage partners; marriage to them often forbidden parallel
differentiation between cross/parallel cousins shows how kinship is not literally __ __ __ but rather __ __ based on blood; culturally constructed
related to organization of kinship units larger than nuclear family; descent groups unilineal; not members of one's own kinship group preferential cross-cousin marriage
__ kinship groups are usually exogamous unilineal
person prohibited from marrying parallel cousin, but allowed/required to marry cross cousin unilineal kinship groups
__ __ marriage, in unilineal groups, reinforces ties between kin groups established in preceding generation preferred cross-cousin
__ __ of preferential cross-cousin marriage, establishes alliances between groups & intensifies relationships among limited number of kin group generation after generation adaptive value
few societies that __ parallel-cousin marriage prefer
parallel-cousin marriage preference is for son/daughter of father's brother; rule of patrilineal descent, inheritance in male line Muslim Arabs of N Africa
parallel cousin marriage among Muslim Arabs helps prevent __ of family property because economic resources can be kept with family fragmentation
result of parallel cousin marriage is the reinforce solidarity of brothers
parallel cousin marriages isolate groups of brothers adding to __ __ & disunity within larger __ __ factional disputes; social systems
each system of marriage & family has elements that contribute to __ & __ at one level, & may be __ at another level solidarity; stability; disruptive
children born into levirate are considered children of __ __ deceased man
man can marry a woman "to the name of" brother who has died childless; children belong to deceased descent group, can remain with mother; form of levirate among Nuer, called ghost marriage
where sororate exists, husband of barren woman marries her sister & at least some of children are considered those of first wife
attest to important of marriage as alliance between 2 groups rather than between individuals; marriage contract can be fulfilled even in event of death; family of wife can be assured of care even at event of husband's death levirate & sororate
if man supposed to marry father's sister's daughter, daughters of all women classified as his __ __ are eligible marriage partners father's sister
levirate & sororate are __, refer to what people say should happen not to necessarily does happen in their society ideals
monogamy is rule in __ cultures, but not most of world's societies Euro-American
given high divorce rate & subsequent remarriage in US term serial monogamy is more accurate
man or woman has one marriage partner at a time but because of ease of divorce does not necessarily remain with that partner for life serial monogamy
polygamy includes polygyny & polyandry
75% of the world's societies permit & prefer __ marriages plural
where women are economically important, polygyny can __ man's wealth & social position increase
chiefs, headsman, or leaders of states may have wives from many different clans/villages, extending a __ __ man's alliances
polygyny is found most typically in __ societies that have high level of productivity horticultural
advantage for women in polygynous societies is that additional women in household increase labor supply & __ __ productive yield
in polygynous societies status of females is not __ __ uniformly low
may mean women are restricted by patriarchal authority polygyny combined with partilineality
may occur in polygynous households, but relations w/co-wives may also be friendly & helpful jealousy
polygynous societies a husband who wants to avoid conflict will attempt to distribute his economic resources & sexual attentions __ among wives evenly
foraging society in Australia; polygynous society; father betroths infant daughter to friend/potential ally that he thinks will bring him most economic & social advantage, or man who has bestowed daughter to him Tiwi
Tiwi father chooses man much younger than himself who shows signs of being good hunter/fighter & who seems likely to rise in influence old-age insurance
large, multiple-wife Tiwi household is an adaptation to their __ __ ecological conditions
younger Tiwi wives serves as __ & __ for older wives apprentices; reinforcements
relationship between Tiwi mother & sons-in-law is important
until their first pregnancy Tiwi wives have __ & __ freedom sexual; social
young Tiwi wives traditionally engage in several __ __ unions with lovers of their own age extramarital sexual
has power in domestic group & considerable influence over her sons senior Tiwi wife
have prestige, power, & independence based on solidarity with other women & economic complimentary with men Tiwi women
polyandry may be an adaptation to __ of females shortage
found in parts of Tibet & Nepal, & among Toda & Pahari Hindus of India polyandrous societies
shortage of women created by female infanticide Toda & Tibetans
where men must be away from home for long periods of time, polyandry provides a woman with more that one husband to take care of her
in polyandrous societies, if brothers marry same woman __ can be kept within family instead of fragmented over generations land
classic case of fraternal polyandry; women married one man & at same time become wife of his brothers Toda of southern India
ceremony held in 7th month of pregnancy assigned child legal/social father; man presents ceremonial bow & arrow made from twigs & grass to wife in front of relatives; eldest brother first, after 2/3 children another brother gives bow giving to bow
practice of female infanticide has ceased leveling out male-to-female ratio along w/influence of Christian missionaries Toda today are largely monogamous
is that it is a publicly acceptable relationship involving transfer of certain rights & obligations essence of marriage
items customarily given as a way of winning goodwill of those w/power to transfer marital rights gifts
essential part of the transfer of marital rights; may still be called gifts exchange of goods & services
if the exchange of "gifts" are not completed, the rights in a marriage can be forfeited
exchanges made in connection with marriage are bride service, bridewealth, & dowry
man may work for his wife's family for as long as 15 years/until birth of 3rd child Ju/'hoansi
inaccurate term conveying misleading perception that marriage was merely economic exchange; now called bridewealth bride price
legitimizing new reproductive & socioeconomic unit created by marriage major function of bridewealth
in societies where bridewealth is customary, person can claim compensation for violation of __ __ only if bridewealth has been paid conjugal rights
bridewealth paid at marriage is returned (subject to specific conditions) if a marriage is terminated
bridewealth confers rights on the wife
by establishing marriage as legal bridewealth allows wives to __ __ __ for violations of conjugal rights hold husbands accountable
recognized & supported by public sanctions legal marriage
bridewealth serves to __ marriage by giving both families a __ __ in keeping couple together stabilize; vested interest
particularly characteristic of Africa bridewealth transactions
cattle dominates these societies culturally & economically, & traditionally makes up greater part of bridewealth Gusii, Turkana, & Kipsigis
embedded in economic strategies of household, related to ways in which men & women engage in labor, distribute property, & maintain/enhance status bridewealth payments
amount of bridewealth paid __ as people adapt to changing economic, demographic, & social conditions varies
pastoral/horticultural society in E Africa; make single bridewealth payment, traditionally consisting of livestock but now incl some cash at time of marriage Kipsigis
Kipsigis distribute bridewealth with __ __ of bride & groom immediate families
Kipsigis 1st marriages are paid for by __ __ & subsequent marriages by __ __, although if they work for wages they may help pay for 1st marriage groom's father; groom himself
primarily responsible for negotiation & final acceptance of bridewealth offer in Kipsigis society bride's parents
increased __ & participation in __ __ have affected Kipsigis bridewealth payments urbanization; global economy
Kipsigis parents of girls educated __ __ __ often demand high bridewealth beyond elementary school
argued that bridewealth payments enhance rather than diminish status of women by enabling both husband/wife to acquire reciprocal right in each other John Ogbu
woman's status in Africa has __ with increasing modernization, urbanization, & participation in wage labor economies, but not due to bridewealth declined
dowry can represent woman's share of her __ __ or payment transferred from bride's family to groom's family family inheritance
1961 became illegal to demand dowry as precondition for marriage; marriage gifts given without precondition remain illegal Indian culture
symbol of affection for beloved daughter leaving home & compensating her for fact traditionally she could not inherit land/property dowry as voluntary gift
personal & household goods constitute __ __ of Indian dowries today main portion
control of Indian dowry is in hand of mother-in-law or husband
recognition of generosity in taking economic burden by groom's family dowry transfer of resources
greater independence for young, unmarried women in India is leading to more __ __ disrupting the kin support networks that traditionally accompanied arranged marriage love marriages
public nature of marriage demonstrated in __ & __ that surround it in almost every society ritual; ceremony
basic types of families identified by anthropologists are elementary/nuclear, composite, & extended family
aggregates of nuclear families linked by common spouse, most often husband composite/compound families
may also be part of a household non-kin
composition of a household is affected by cultural rules about __ a newly married couple will __ where; live
nuclear family is most often __ with neolocal residence associated
only 5% of world's societies are neolocal
nuclear family adapted in many ways by requirements of __ society industrial
more than 3/4 of all __ groups live in nuclear families foraging
in US the monogamous, independent, neolocal nuclear family is ideal for most people
related to high degree of mobility required in industrial system & a culture that places emphasis on romantic love, privacy, & personal independence neolocal nuclear family
ideally regarded as egalitarian; roles less rigidly defined American nuclear family
almost 1/2 of children of divorced parents in US have not seen their __ __ for more than 1 yr & 10 yrs later more than 2/3 have lost contact with him biological father
surrogacy is both in opposition to & also consistent w/American cultural assumptions & ideals about importance of family, motherhood, fatherhood, & kinship Helena Ragone
participants in surrogacy programs universally used reinterpreted traditional __ __ __ & definitions of motherhood to recreate conventional cultural norms American kinship ideology
Ragone found that since women who employ surrogates are not biologically related to their children they tend to redefine motherhood consisting of biological motherhood & social motherhood
couples involved in surrogacy emphasized the biological relationship to father, demonstrating continued importance of blood tie at core of traditional Euro-American kinship ideology
suggest that current problems of American families may be addressed by accepting polygyny as alternative form of marriage Phillip Kilbride
__ families now account for 22% of all households w/children, in the US single-parent
make up more than 1/3 of households headed by a single woman unmarried mothers
make up almost 6% of all households w/children, & approx. 20% of all single-parent households single-father families
in US, female-headed households & teen pregnancy are correlated with poverty
composite families are mainly __, structured by rules that require women to live in husband's home after marriage patrilocal
polygynous household consisting of one man with several wives & their respective children constitutes a __ family composite
extended family not just collection of __ families nuclear
blood ties between generations lineal
lineal ties are more important than ties of marriage in __ families extended
in __ __, extended family is found most often among landlord & prosperous merchant classes & nuclear/stem family among peasants stratified societies
extended families can be __ or __ patrilineal; matrilineal
organized around a man, his sons, & son's wives & children; often having patrilocal residence rules patrilineal extended family
organized around a women & he daughters' husband & children; may have matrilocal/avunculocal residence rules matrilineal extended family
patrilineal, patrilocal extended family was ideal; lineal descents were backbone of family organization; family continued through time as permanent social entity; as old member lost through death, new added through birth premodern China
marriage in premodern China were viewed more as acquiring a __ than as taking a __ daughter-in-law; wife
marriages in premodern China were __ by the parents & new couple lived with __ family arranged; husband's
in premodern China, __ relationship of the son to his father & loyalty/solidarity of __ were given more importance than ties between husband & wife obedient; brothers
public demonstration of affection between married couple was severely criticized; feared man's feelings for wife would interfere w/his carrying out responsibilities to his own blood kin India & China
generally matrilocal, most important ties are between women & her mother & her siblings matrilineal extended family
patrilineal society child's father is responsible for providing for/protecting mother-child unit
Pueblo group in American SW, matrilineal society; both male/female members of lineage consider mother's house their home; men return to home for ritual/ceremonial occasions; matrilineal clans extend over many different villages Hopi
revolves around central & continuing core of women; mother-daughter relationship is close; mother responsible for economic & ritual training of daughters Hopi household
strongest & most permanent tie in Hopi society is between sisters
relation of Hopi sisters to one another & to their mother foundation of household group
Hopi boys fear their __ __ as sources of power & authority maternal uncle
must not marry within own clan or that of father's/mother's Hopi man
extended family system prevails in all __ societies, where its main adaptive advantages are economic cultivating
principles of mutual obligation of extended kin, joint ownership of property, & authority structures have proved useful among upper classes of __ __ in successful management of modern corporations urban India
does not have word for marriage, illegitimate child, infidelity, or promiscuity; both men & women have multiple partners, serially/simultaneously Na society
culturally normative & most frequent Na institution that joins men/women in sexual & reproductive partnerships sese
effort to conceal relationship is abandoned; usually occurs after long-term relationship in Na society conspicuous visit
occurs when Na household is short of women by means of which to produce children or short of men to labor in fields cohabitation