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AP II chp23

What does mitochondria consume to produce ATP? O2 (oxygen)
Organisms must have mechanisms to obtain O2 from the environment and get rid of what? CO2 (carbon dioxide)
What are functions of the repiratory system? provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air&circulating blood;gas exchange; regulation of blood pH; voice production; olfaction; protection
What does the respiratory tract consist of? conducting portion(from nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles) and repiratory portion(the respiratory bronchioes and alveoli)
components of the respiratory defense system mucous cells and mucous gland(produce mucous that bathes exposed surfaces); cilia(mucous escalator); filtration(removes large particles);alveolar macrophages(engulf small particles)
pharynx chamber shared by digestive and respiratory systems; extends from internal nares to entrances to larynx and esophagus; air flow
cartilage functions thyroid and cricoid cartilages support and protect the glottis and entrance to trachea; larynx is elevated and epiglottis folds back over glottis while swallowing(prevents entry of food and liquids into respiratory tract);produces sound
production of sound air passing through glottis; vibrates vocal fold; produces sound waves
submucosa beneath mucosa of trachea=contains mucous glands
respiratory epithelium lining the respiratory tract, where it serves to moisten and protect the airways ie contains nucous cells
How many tracheal cartilages strengthen and protect airway 15-20
hilum where pulmonary nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics enter lung: anchored in meshwork of connective tissue
the root of the lung complex of connective tissues, nerves and vessels in hilum; anchored to the mediastinum
what is the shape of the right lung? wider and displaced upward by liver
what is the shape of the left lung? longer and displaced leftward by the heart forming the CARDIAC NOTCH
the bronchial tree formed by the primary bronchi and their branches:extrapulmonary bronchi, intrapulmonary bronchi
EXTRApulmonary bronchi the left and right bronchi brances OUTSIDE THE LUNGS
INTRApulmonary bronchi branches WITHIN THE LUNGS
bronchitis inflammation of bronchial walls; causes constriction and breathing difficulty
Each tertiary bronchus branches into multiple what? bronchioles
bronchioles branch into what? terminal bronchioles
bronchiole structure have NO cartilage; dominated by SMOOTH MUSCLE
autonomic control regulates smooth muscle; controls diameter of bronchioles; controls airflow and resistance in lungs
bronchodilation dilation of bronchial airways; caused by sympathetic ANS activation; reduces resistance
bronchoconstriction contricts bronchi; caused by parasympathetic ANS activation; histamine release (allergic reactions)
respiratory bronchioles are connected to alveoli along what? alveolar ducts
alveolar ducts end at what? alveolar sacs(common chambers connected to many individual alveoli)
alveoli extensive network of capillaries; surrounded by elastic fibers
alveolar epithelium consists of: simple squamous epithelium, thin, delicate pneumocytes type I; patrolled by alveolar macrophages(dust cells); contains pneumocytes type II(septal cells) that produce surfactant
type I cells Of alveoli gas exchange
type II cells of alveoli surfactant secretion
surfactans decrease the work of breathing; decrease the surface tension-->decreases the resistance of the lung to stretch ie. the work
type II epithelial cells secrete: surfactant from lamellar bodies (LBs) into thin layer of alveolar surface liquid lining the alveoli
What is an oily secretion and contains phospholipids and proteins? surfactants
what are the 3 layers of the respiratory membrane? squamous epithelial lining of alveolus; endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary; fused basal lamiae between alveolar and endothelial cells
respiratory membrane thin membrane of alveoli where gas exchange takes place
What is the diffusion across repiratory membrane? why? very rapid; b/c distance is short, gases are lipid soluble
pneumonia inflammation of lobules; causes fluid to leak into alveoli; compromises function of repiratory membrane
the Fick equation J = -DAdC/dx (J=rate of diffusion[moles/sec];D=diffusion coefficient;A=area of the membrane;dC=concentration gradient;dx=diffusion distance)
external respiration includes all processes involved in exchanging O2 and CO2 with the environment
internal respiration aka cellular respiration; involves the uptake of O2 and production of CO2 within individual cells
what are the 3 processes of external respiration 1)pulmonary ventilation(breathing);2)gas diffusion-across membranes and capillaries;3)transport of O2 and CO2:between alveolar capillaries, between capillary beds in other tissues
pulmonary ventilation the physical movement of air in and out of respiratory tract; provides alveolar ventilation
bulk flow mass movement of water or air as the result of pressure gradients
respiratory systems use changes in what to cause changes in pressure? volume
what are the physical properties of lungs? compliance(indicatior of expandability);elasticity(tendency to return to intial size after distension)
what muscle is the regulation of air flow? smooth muscle
if we increase the diameter of bronchodilation what will happen to the resistance?(increase/decrease) decrease
air moves from what pressure to what pressure? high to low
atmospheric pressure is the pressure of the air where the body? outside the body
intra-alveolar pressure is the pressure: inside the alveoli of the lungs
intrapleural pressure is always: below atmospheric pressure
intrapleural pressure is the pressure within the:; pressure is what, due to lack of air in the intrapleural space? within the pleural cavity; negative
what are the 3 different pressures of the lungs? 1)atmospheric pressure 2)intra-alveolar pressure 3)intrapleural pressure
air moves into and out of the lungs along: pressure gradients that are the result of volume changes
intrapulmonary pressure pressure inside lung decreases as lung volume increases
intrapleural pressure pressure becomes more negative as chest wall expands
inhalation is always: active
exhalation is: active or passive
quiet breathing(eupnea) involves active inhalation and passive exhalation
diaphragmatic breathing(deep breathing) dominated by diaphragm
costal breathing(shallow breathing) dominated by ribcage movements
forced breathing(hyperpnea) involves active inhalation and exhalation; assisted by accessory muscles; maximum levels occur in exhaustion
respiratory mucosa lines which portion of the respiratory system? conducting portion
respiratory mucosa consists of: epithelial layer; areolar layer called the lamina propria(supports the respiratory epthelium; trachea and bronchi=contains mucous glands;conducting portion of lower respiratory system=contains smooth muscle cells)
Law of LaPlace equation: P=2T/r (pressure=2xTension/radius)
If you increase radius in the Law of LaPlace equation how is the pressure inward effected? decreases
if you decrease tension in the Law of LaPlace equation how is the pressure inward effected? decreases
what is the measure of solubility(measure of how easy something diffuses) in the fick equation? D
Rate of diffusion will be greates when the ___, ___, and pressure gradients(__) are large, but the diffusion distance is ___ diffusion coefficient (D); area of the membrane(A); dC/dx; small
gas exchange surfaces are typically: thin with a large surface area
What are the 3 mechanics of breathing? 1)diaphragm 2)external intercostal muscles 3) accessory muscles assist in elevating ribs
diaphragm contraction draws air into lungs
external intercostal muscles assist inhalation
accessory muscles assist in elevating ribs sternocleidomastoid, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor and scalene muscles
muscles of active exhalation internal intercostal and trasversus thoracis muscle(depress the ribs); abdominal muscles(comproess the abdomen and force diaphragm upward)
gas exchange depends on: partial pressures of the gases; diffusion of molecules between gas and liquid
in gas exchange, diffusion occurs in response to: pressure gradients
in gas exchange, rate of diffusion depends on: physical principles or gas laws
What is the ideal gas law equation? PV = nRT
Dalton's Law and Partial Pressures in a gas mixture each gas exerts its own PARTIAL PRESSURE that sum to the total pressure of the mixture
What is Henry's Law equation? [G] = P(gas) X S(gas)
Henry's Law when a gas under pressure comes in contact w/ liquid, the gas dissolves in liquid until equilibrium is reached; simply put:gases have to dissolve in liquid before the diffuse
CO2 is much more soluble in water than is O2. Thus, at the same partial pressure, more __ will be dissolved. CO2
Graham's law relative diffusion of a given gas is proportional to its solubility in the liquid and inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight;basically big things take longer to diffuse
What is the Graham's law equation? Diffusion rate is proportional to solubility/the root of molecular weight
by combining Fick, Henry's and Graham's, you get: diffusion rate is proportional to partial pressure gradient X cross-sectional area X solubility of gas in fluid/diffusion distance X the root of molecular weight
If surface area is decreased, what will happen to diffusion rate? decreases
Efficiency of gas exchange due to: differences in partial pressure; distances are short; O2 and CO2 are lipid soluble; total surface area is large; blood flow and airflow are coordinated
metalloproteins contain metal ions which: reversibly bind to oxygen and increase oxygen carrying capacity by 50-fold
Why can only a small amount of oxygen dissolve in blood? b/c of the low solubility of oxygen in aqueous solutions
PO2 is equal in plasma and lungs but oxygen content of plasma is: much lower
If an oxygen carrier such as hemoglobin is present, some of the oxygen will bind to the: pigment
When hemoglobin binds to oxygen, does oxygen wants or does not want to diffuse in blood? wants to diffuse in blood
What does the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve show the relationship between? partial and pressure of oxygen in the plasma and the percentage of oxygenated respiratory pigment
As partial pressure (decreases/increases), more and more pigment molecules will bind oxygen, until the saturation point increases
P50 oxygen partial pressure at which the pigment is 50% saturated
in the higher level of the saturation curve, is it loading or unloading and where? loading oxygen to the lungs
in the lower level of the saturation curve, is it loading or unloading and where? unloading oxygen into blood
What has a lower P50 than hemoglobin? But has higher oxygen affinity. myoglobin
Hemoglobin curve is ____. Myoglobin curve is ____. sigmoidal; hyperbolic
What changes shape each time a molecule of O2 is bound? hemoglobin
____ only binds one O2. myoglobin
When you have a lower P50, do you have a higher or lower affinity? higher affinity
What are the environmental factors affecting hemoglobin? Po2 of blood;blood pH;temperature; metabolic activity within RBCs; carbon monoxide(CO)
T/F: Hemoglobin is not a metalloprotein false. it is
In the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve, when pH drops or temperature rises more or less oxygen is released? more oxygen is released
in the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve, when pH rises or temperature drops more or less oxygen is released? less oxygen is released
Name the effect of pH on hemoglobin-saturation curve? the Bohr effect
RBCs generate ATP by: glycolysis forming lactic acid and DPG
DPG directly affects O2 binding and release, meaning: more DPG, more oxygen released
T/F: the structure of fetal hemoglobin differs from that of adult hemoglobin. true
T/F: At the same Po2 Fetal Hb binds less O2 than adult Hb false, fetal Hb binds more
allows fetus to take O2 from what kind of blood? maternal blood
BONUS: the root effect allows fish to: float(buoyant)
Oxygen dissolved in plasma (Po2 of plasma) is influenced by: composition of inspired air, alveolar ventilation, oxygen diffusion between alveoli and blood, adequate perfusion of alveoli
What are the effects of alveolar ventilation? rate and depth of breathing, lung compliance, airway resistance
What are the effects of oxygen diffusion between alveoli and blood? surface area, diffusion distance(:membrane thickness, amount of interstitial fluid)
Which 2 that influence oxygen dissolved in plasma does not lead to anything? composition of inspired air, adequate perfusion of alveoli
oxygen dissolved in plasma helps determine: % saturation of Hb
% saturation of Hb is affected by: PCO2, pH, temperature, DPG
How do you get the total number of binding sites? (Hb content per RBC) X (number of RBCs)
How do you get oxygen bound to Hb? (% saturation of Hb) X (total number of binding sites)
What is generated as a by-product of aerobic metabolism(cellular respiration)? CO2
What is more soluble in body fluids than oxygen? carbon dioxide
How much of CO2 is transported(dissolved) in the plasma? little CO2
T/F: All CO2 binds to proteins false, some CO2 bind
What is mostly tranpsorted as bicarbonate (catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase)? most CO2
What is the main point of Henry's law? CO2 dissolved
Which curve shows the relationship between PCO2 and the total CO2 content of the blood? carbon dioxide equilibrium curve
What is the Haldane effect? deoxygenated blood can carry more CO2 than oxygenated blood
Removal of oxygen from hemoglobin in the carbon dioxide equilibrium curve (increases/decreases) hemoglobin's affinity for carbon dioxide increases
Created by: kueeck