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Orthopedic

Anatomy of the Muscular System

QuestionAnswer
The number of types of muscles in the body is three
These muscles provide the means by which the body can move. skeletal
These muscles help the heart pump blood throughout the circulatory system. cardiac
This type of muscles is involuntary, nonstriated muscle that form a continuous thin layer around many organs and structures. smooth
A muscle is attached to a bone by a cordlike, nonelastic, white fibrous band of connective tissue called a tendon
A thin sac of synovial membrane filled with synovial fluid that acts as a cushion to reduce friction where a tendon rubs against a bone is called a bursa
Each muscle is wrapped in a thin connective tissue called fascia
This is a flat, wide, white fibrous sheet of connective tissue, sometimes composed of several tendons, that attached a muscle to a bone or to another deeper muscle. aponeurosis
The gluteus maximus muscles are located in the buttocks
The rectus abdominis muscles are located in the abdomen
The triceps brachii muscles are located in the arm
Bending a joint to decrease the angle between two bones or two body parts is called flexion
Straightening and extending a joint to increase the angle between two bones or body parts is called extension
Moving a body part away from the midline of the body is called abduction
Moving a body part toward the midline of the body is called adduction
Moving a body part around its axis is called rotation
Turning the palms of the hand anteriorly or upward is called supination
Turning the palm of the hand posteriorly or downward is called pronation
Turning a body part outward and toward the side is called eversion
Turning a body part inward is called inversion
The word that means "pertaining to inbetween the ribs" is intercostal
This muscle resembles a trapezoid. trapezius
This muscle comes from the Greek meaning "resembling a triangle" deltoid
The common term for the group of muscles that includes the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus, on the posterior upper leg is the hamstrings
An increase in the size of a muscle due to vigorous weight training or exercise is called muscle hypertrophy
The combining forms "muscul/o, myos/o, and my/o" all mean muscle
The combining form "skelet/o" means skeleton
The combining form "burs/o" means bursa
The combining form "fasci/o" means fascia
The combining form that means "to put in, introduce" is insert/o
The combining forms "tendin/o, tendon/o, and ten/o" mean tendon
The combining form that means "bring; move; a duct" is duct/o
The combining form that means "straightening" is extens/o
The combining form that means "bending" is flex/o
The combining form that means "face down" is prnat/o
The combining form "rotat/o" means rotate
The combining form that means "lying on the back" is supinat/o
The combining form "buccinat/o" means cheek
The combining form "front/o" means front
The combining form "masset/o" meansq chewing
The combining form that means "small circle" is orbicul/o
The combining form "stern/o" means sternum
The combining form "cleid/o" means clavicle
The combining form that means "breast; mastoid process" is mast/o
The combining form that means "temple (side of the head) is tempor/o
The combining form "delt/o" means triangle
The combining form that means "rib" is cost/o
Inflammation of a bursa is called bursitis
THe combining form "pector/o" means chest
The combining form "brachi/o" means arm
The combining form "then/o" means thumb
The combining form "extern/o" means outside
The combining form that means "inside" is intern/o
The combining form "gastr/o" means stomach
The combining form "perone/o" means fibula
The combining form "tibi/o" means tibia
The combining form that means "before, front part" is anter/o
The neurotransmitter that initiates a muscle contraction is called acetylcholine
The opposite of relaxation is contraction
A bundle composed of many muscle fibers is called a fascicle
The chemical messenger between a nerve cell and a muscle fiber is a neurotransmitter
The combining form "neur/o" means nerve
The combining form "troph/o" means development
Loss of muscle bulk due to disease or lack of use is called atrophy
A condition in which the muscle tears away from a tendon or the tendon tears away from a bone is called an avulsion
The result of a severe blunt or crushing injury that causes bleeding in the muscle of the leg is called compartment syndrome
When an arm or leg muscle becomes progressively flexed and drawn into a position where it becomes nearly immovable is called contracture
Overstretching or overuse of a muscle is called a strain
The suffixes -algia and -dynia mean pain
The combining form "alg/o" means pain
The combining form "contus/o" means bruising
The combining form that means "twisted position" is tort/i
The suffix tManhat means "condition of the neck" is -collis
The medical term for a painful spasm of the muscles on one side of the neck commonly known as "wryneck" is called torticollis
The combining form that means "redness and warmth" is inflammat/o
Pain in one or more muscles due to injury or muscle disease is called myalgia
Any disease or condition of a muscle is called myopathy
Inflammation of a muscle with localized swelling and tenderness is called myositis
Widespread inflammation of many muscles is called polymyositis
A benign tumor that arises from a muscle is called a rhabdomyoma
A cancerous tumor that arises from a muscle and usually affects children and young adults is called a rhabdomyosarcoma
Incoordination of the muscles during movement is called ataxia
Abnormally slow muscle movements is called bradykinesia
The combining form that means "coordination" is tax/o
The combining form that means "rod-shaped" is rhabd/o
The combining form "kines/o" means movement
The word that means after death is postmortem
The combining form that means "intentionally causing harm; cancer" is malign/o
The combining form that means "connective tissue" is sarc/o
An abnormally increased amount of muscle movement is called hyperkinesia
Abnormal motions that include tics, muscle spasm, and muscle jerking that occur because of difficulty controlling the muscles is called dyskinesia
Small, involuntary, sometimes jerky, back and forth movements of the hand, neck, jaw and extremities is called tremor
Inflammation of the fascia around a muscle is called fascitis
Involuntary muscle jerking is called myoclonus
A semisolid or fluid containing cyst that develops on a tendon, often in the wrist, is called ganglion
Inflammation of a tendon from injury or overuse is called tendonitis
When the doctor taps on your knee to see whether the muscular-nervous pathway is functioning normally is commmonly called "knee jerk" or medically known as patellar reflex
Suture of a torn muscle is called myorrhaphy
The suffix -rrhaphy means suture
The combining form that means to "cut into" is incis/o
The combining form that means "surgical removal or excision" is -ectomy
The suffix that means "process of cutting or making an incision" is -tomy
The combining form "mot/o" means movement
THe procedure to suture together a tendon is called a tenorrhaphy
Incision of the thymus gland is called a thymectomy
The combining form "pod/o" means foot
THe combining form "physi/o" means function
The prefix "intra" means within
The suffix that means "procedure to puncture or surgical puncture" is -centesis
The combining form "orth/o" means straight
The suffix that means "process of recording" is -graphy
The suffix that means "a record or picture" is -gram
Created by: GKSMS97 on 2010-06-27



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