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Human Evolution

Chapter 2 - ANT2410

small stylized statues of females made in a variety of materials by early modern humans “Venus” figurines
tree-dwelling arboreal
spear thrower; a device used to increase and extend the power of the human arm when throwing a spear atlatl
members of an early hominid genus found in Africa and characterized by bipedal locomotion and small brain size australopithecines
walking on two feet, a distinctive characteristic of humans and our ancestors; appeared earlier than increased brain size or tool use bipedalism
frequency change of a particular trait as you move geographically from one point to another. clinal distribution
descent with modification from a single common ancestor or ancestral population evolution
mixing of genetic material that results from the movement of individuals and groups from place to place. gene flow
changes in the frequencies of specific traits caused by random factors. genetic drift
a group of similar species genus
species of early human found in Africa, Asia, and Europe; present between 1.8 million & about 200,000 years ago; brain/body size >; brain vol.1000cc size up to 1250 cc Homo erectus
species of early human found in Africa; present between 2.5 & 1.8 million years ago; brains lrg compared to body; skulls high & less protrusion in face Homo habilis
species of human found throughout the world; earliest appeared about 500,000 years ago Homo sapiens
theory that seeks to explain transition from archaic to modern Homo sapiens, by proposing that modern & archaic forms interbred hybridization model
pigment found in the skin, hair, and eyes of human beings, as well as many other species, that is responsible for variations in color melanin
theory that seeks to explain transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens, arguing different populations of Homo sapiens are descendant from different populations of Homo erectus multiregional model
random change in genetic material; the ultimate source of all biological variation mutation
mechanism of evolutionary change; changes in traits of living organisms that occur over time as a result of differences in reproductive success among individuals natural selection
members of a population of archaic Homo sapiens; lived between 130,000 & 35,000 years ago Neanderthal
stone tools made by Homo habilis Oldowan tools
animal that eats both plant and animal foods omnivore
slight difference in the image of an object seen from two different vantage points parallax
member of a biological order of mammals that includes human beings, apes, and monkeys as well as prosimians (lemurs, tarsiers, and others) primate
theory that modern people evolved 1st in Africa & then spread out to inhabit virtually all the world, out-competing/destroying other human populations in the process replacement model
childhood disease characterized by the softening and bending of leg and pelvis bones; related to insufficiency of vitamin D and/or calcium rickets
theory that the evolution of certain traits can be explained by competition for opportunities to mate sexual selection
group of organisms whose members are similar to one another and are able to reproduce within their group but not with members of other groups species
learned use of twigs or blades of grass to extract termites from their mounds characteristic of some groups of chimpanzees termite fishing
in its broadest sense evolution refers to __ change directional
evolution is a __ of populations, not individual organisms characteristic
for a change to be evolutionary in a biological sense, it must affect the __ we pass on to next generations genes
evolution is the primary way we understand the __ history of humanity, and all life biological
6th century BCE Anaximander of Milteus speculated that humans arose from fish
used evidence of fossil fish from numerous place around Mediterranean to support Anaximander's theory Xenophanes of Colophon
biological anthropology fits into cultural anthropology because human behavior rest on a biological base
language, two-legged stance, & need to reproduce are all __ __ that are basic to human culture evolved traits
understanding human's evolutionary history is important to cultural anthropologists because it informs us about the things that all humans have in common
most convincing scientific explanation of variety/history of live on earth, theory of evolution by Charles Darwin
__ among members of a species comes from mutation, sexual reproduction, gene flow, & gene drift variations
mutations are the __ __ of all variation ultimate source
gene flow also creates new variations
a random factor that cause a specific characteristic to be prevalent in the descents of this group isolation
before development of sanitation is 19th century & antibiotics in 20th century, vast numbers of children died very young
more than 40% of all deaths in London between 1813-1820 were children <10 yr
in the world's poorer nations, in modern times, large numbers of children die before 5yr
in 2003 , 11 African nations __ of children died before age 5yr 20%
Darwin was profoundly affected by the __ & __ philosophy of his era social; political
these philosophers emphasized role of competition in humans social life & culture Adam Smith & Thomas Malthus
argued competition among firms increased their productivity & led to social betterment Smith, 1770s
wrote that because human population levels rose much faster than agricultural production, struggles over resources were inevitable Malthus
Darwin gave __ & __ prominent roles in his theory competition; struggle
creatures who has traits that suited them well to their environment tended to __ in struggle for nutrition & reproduction win
Darwin argued that creatures who won survival struggle passed some __ __ to offspring successful traits
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is referred to as survival of the fittest
survival of the fittest was a phrase coined by Herbert Spencer (1864)
regarding "fitness" referring to wealth, power, & physical strength Spencer
regarding "fitness" referring to creatures better adapted to environment tend to succeed in struggle for food/mates, passing on traits, & less well adapted traits tend to disappear Darwin
__ & __ do not necessarily guarantee reproductive success strength; intelligence
Darwin understood evolution by natural selection as a slow, steady, __ process continuous
proposed alternative model of evolution called punctuated equilibrium Niles Eldridge & Stephen Jay Gould (1972)
Eldridge & Gould agreed with the basic __ __ of natural selection Darwinian mechanism
species tend to remain stable for long periods, then through mutation & natural selection, change quite suddenly; supported by much of fossil record punctuated equilibrium
evolution challenges a __ __ of the world's religious texts about how animals came to live on the earth literal reading
in 1950 declared that evolution was compatible with Christian teachings Catholic Church
in 2007, said the debate between evolution & creationism in US was an "absurdity" & that evolution can coexist w/faith Pope Benedict XVI
in official publications/conference proceedings, United Presbyterian Ch., Episcopalian Ch., Unitarian Ch., United Methodist Ch., & Central Council of American Rabbis have all supported evolution & opposed teaching of scientific creationism in public schools
evolution has become part of the basic framework of all biological sciences
biological scientists agree on basic principles of evolution/natural selection, but argue about __ of evolution & precise __ under which it occurs speed; conditions
all arguing sides of natural selection debate agree on basic principles but differ on specific applications
modern-day human & modern-day gorillas & chimpanzees evolved from common ancestors
it is biologically __ to say that humans evolved from apes/monkeys & leads to ___ of evolution inaccurate; misunderstanding
by saying humans evolved from gorillas/chimpanzees suggests that humans are more evolved
no creature can be more __ than another evolved
belief that intellect/ability to alter environment is most important criterion of evolution is a __ __ of looking at biology human-centered way
no agreed upon __ __ of humans, gorillas & chimpanzees has been found common ancestor
through __ & info from __ __ give us information about the common ancestor of humans, gorillas & chimpanzees fossils ; biochemical dating
biological anthropologists use fossil record & tech. based on study of DNA, blood protein, blood-clotting agents, & immunology to try to determine __ common ancestors of humans, gorillas & chimpanzees lived when
creatures that became humans & apes split from those that gave rise to monkeys of Europe, Africa & Asia 25-20 million yrs ago
humans last had common ancestor with gorillas about 8 million yrs ago
humans last had common ancestor with orangutans about 13 million yrs ago
humans last had common ancestor with chimpanzees about 7 million yrs ago
all primates originated from __ mammals tree-dwelling
to survive in 3D world of trees, primates needed hands & feet with opposable thumbs
tree-dwelling primates developed very __ __ & __ __ acute eyesight; depth perception
in primates accurate depth perception comes from stereoscopic vision
primate's field of vision of each eye __ the other overlaps
overlapping vision allows primates to see objects __ from 2 slightly different angles at once close-up
most scent molecules are __ and tend accumulate at __ level heavy; ground
make scent a less dependable indicator of direction breezes
primates have a reduced sense of __ compared with that of other mammals smell
primates, in particular humans/apes, have a larger __ compared to body weight than do other animals brain
almost all primates live in __ __ social groups
live in group consisting of single adult male & numerous adult females & offspring gorillas
live in groups that include several adult males & females & offspring chimpanzees
live in monogamous pairs gibbons & several species of monkeys
live in groupings w/one female and two males monkeys from Central/South America
core of primate societies is the bond between mother & offspring
the mother-infant bond is stronger in primates than any other animals, w/exception to elephants
besides the mother, the __ plays an important role in parenting grandmother
primates have an enormous ability & __ to learn need
by __, primates refine their physical skills, explore their world, & practice solving problems playing
both males & females are ranked as superior/inferior to one another dominance hierarchies
anthropologists believe __ serve to limit amount of aggression hierarchies
lower-ranking individuals less likely to challenge those w/more status than might otherwise be the case once hierarchy is established
greater access to food, sex, & other resource is the __ __ to a high rank in the hierarchy critical benefit
though presence of hierarchy prevents constant conflict, aggression does occur to change patterns of dominance
recorded 1st tool used among non-human primates in 1960 Jane Goodall
most sophisticated tool use, among non-human primates, is found among chimpanzees & baboons
reported chimpanzees fashioning sticks into spears & using them to hunt bush babies (squirrel-sized nocturnal primates) Pruetz & Bertolani (2007)
reported chimpanzees in Ivory Coast used hammer stones to break nuts & stone piles/chips left by process very similar to remains of early hominin tools Mercader, Panger & Boesch (2002)
2 well-documented examples of chimpanzee & bonobo tool use are termite fishing & leaf sponges
chimpanzees take leaves, chew them, & use resulting wad of material to soak up water from tree hollows & other places of difficult access leaf sponges
among all primates who use tools, it is __ who first develop tool-using skills females
females generally become __ __ at tool use when compared to males more adapt
tool use behavior among sea otters, woodpecker finches & other non-primates seems largely instinctive
different behavior patterns, such as tool use, are __ __ patterns passed along as part of knowledge of the social group learned behavior
humans & nearest ape relations have been following __ __ of evolution for past 5-8million years separate courses
history of human evolution is a narrative of growth & movement
humans had to innovate, apply learning in new/original ways, adapt by changing our behaviors in order to live in many different ecosystems
all human ancestors, current-day humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, & orangutans are member of biological family of Hominidae
if male & female are capable of producing offspring they are members of same species
if male & female are not capable of producing offspring, or offspring are infertile, they are members of different species
since there is no available test for fossil ancestors, w/regard to offspring, so determining species membership is speculative
human ancestors & modern-day people fall into Australopithecus or Homo
modern people are members of genus Homo
many ancient ancestors of modern people are members of Australopithecus
larger/harder something is the longer it takes to __, & greater chance of __ decay; fossilization
hardest part of body, easiest to fossilize teeth
large & found more frequently than smaller bones of the ribs skull & leg bones
decay very rapidly & rarely found soft tissues
techniques such as aerial/ground-based surveys, satellite imagery, & radar are used at certain geological formations to locate fossils
once fossil-bearing site found is it __ & __ photographed; mapped
fossil-bearing sites are usually divided into a __ grid
grids in fossil-bearing sites are __ examined by section systematically
complex & highly technical procedure; incl potassium/argon (K/Ar), Carbon14 (C14), thermoluminescence & paleomagnetic dating of fossils
dating techniques provide date ranges
date ranges are generally specified as + or - a certain number of years
critical thing that differentiates human & our ancestors from modern-day apes & their ancestors is bipedal stance & locomotion
shaped differently than those of animals that walk on all fours skulls & pelvises of bipeds
freed hands allowing our ancestors to carry things for long distances & make tools bipedal locomotion
fossil skull, earliest evidence of creature considered ancestral to humans, found 2002 in Chad Toumai
early/mid-1990's, discovered remains of 40+ who lived approximately 4.4million yrs ago Tim White
large jaws, small brains; teeth similar to modern-day chimpanzees; pelvic bones, skulls, & forelimbs indicated bipedal Ardipithecus ramidus
earliest Australopithecine fossils are from N. __ & are between 3.9-4.2 million yrs old Kenya
1974, Hadar Ethiopia, "Lucy" 40% of bones present, discovered by team lead by Donald Johanson
Laetoli Tanzania, 3.5 million-year-old bed of volcanic ash found (2) footprint trails by Australopithecines Mary Leakey
small, light, slender, standing 3.5-5ft tall wght 65-100 lbs; 1/3 size of modern humans; lived in arid/semiarid grasslands, bushlands, & forests; found by Hadar & Leakey are called gracile Australopithecines
heavier skulls, reinforced w/bony ridges & substantially lrg teeth/jaws; adapted for chewing heavy, course material; lived in Africa until 1 million yr ago robust Australopithecines
critical factor in human evolution toolmaking
1st Australopithecus africanus skull identified Taungs child
the array of teeth of the Homo habilis suggests they were omnivores
the fact that Oldowan tools were designed for cutting & bashing rather than hunting suggests that Homo habilis rarely killed large animals
stone rings found at Olduvai Gorge (N. Tanzania) indicate Homo habilis probably built shelters for protection from predators & climate
earliest remains of Homo habilis are from __ __ & had been believed they were limited to that continent eastern/southern Africa
fossils from Indonesia/China, Oldowan-style tools in Pakistan/France, skulls/fossils similar to habilis in Damanisi/Rep. of Georgia indicate habilis spread out of Africa
the geographic dispersion of habilis suggests they were more __ & __ on __ than was previously thought adaptable; dependent; culture
Homo erectus fossils come from __ __ & are about 1.8 million yrs old Northern Kenya
Homo erectus were substantially larger than habilis, roughly the same size as modern-day people
1.6 million-yr-old skeleton of 12-yr-old boy found at Lk Turkana Kenya estimate that if they boy had grown to maturity he would have been at least 6ft tall
not only is the Homo erectus skull larger but its bone are heavier
erectus has a __ ridge of bone above eyes & __ bone is thick heavy; cranial
erectus' thick bones/heavy reinforcing features suggests very strong jaw muscles
erectus' skulls is marked by disproportionate shortness/thickness, making the largest point below the ears
Homo erectus' named by Eugene Dubois 1890s, years before any of australopithcines finds, so he named them because he believed he had found oldest human ancestor who walked upright
erectus was found before the fossils of earlier bipedal species because its geographic spread was much larger
inhabited much of Africa, Europe, & Asia; major finds have been made in eastern/northern/southern Africa, Spain, Middle East, China & Indonesia erectus
from its __ __ __ we know erectus was able to adapt to life in greater variety of ecological/climatic settings wide geographic spread
much of the era of erectus happened during Ice Ages
in order to thrive in many different habitats, erectus developed increasingly sophisticated & complex culture
important window on erectus culture provided by human/animals remains & artifacts (more than 40 erectus individuals/>100,000 artifacts) found at Zhoukoudian, China (near Beijing)
inhabited between 450,000 & 230,000 yrs ago by erectus Zhoukoudian
choppers, scrapers, points, & awls from stone; deer antlers for tools & possibly skulls for drinking bowls; remains of fires, inhabitants of Zhoukoudian
most anthropologists agree erectus was capable of __ fire controlling
show erectus was capable of hunting/butchering elephants 1/2 million years ago remains in Spain
many erectus fossil sites show marks of __ __ as well as cut marks from tools carnivore teeth
evidence of __ among the bone tools at Zhoukoudian suggests that clothing was made from animal skins needles
debate about the basic validity of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is largely political and religious rather than scientific
increasing acquisition of sophisticated, learned, cultural behavior is the __ __ in human evolution critical trend
Raymond Dart made his critical fossil discovery in the 1920s
one possible explanation for differences in skin color has to do with the response of people with different skin colors to cold climates
some __ of erectus fossils from Zhoukoudian were removed after death brains
homo erectus find 2003; new species of hominin called "the Hobbit"; discovered on isl. of Flores Indonesia; small variety of Homo erectus Homo floresiensis
some anthropologists belief floresiensis is a __ __ of erectus dwarf form
some anthropologists belief floresiensis is Homo sapiens with diseases or congenital malformations
depending on the assumptions of the researcher, some recent tests found floresiensis similar to __ or __ erectus; habilis
critical anatomical distinctions between erectus & sapiens lie in the __ & __ of the skull volume; shape
skull lacks heavy bony ridge above eyes; skull is high & vaulted w/lrg forehead sapiens
skeletal changes between erectus & sapiens reflect tight interrelationship of learned behavior & biological evolution
Neanderthals had brain sizes overlapping & __ __ than modern people sometimes larger
by 35,000 yr ago Homo __ __ had spread throughout the range of all populations & was the only form present sapiens sapiens
two prominent theories of how transition of erectus to sapiens took place multiregional & replacement models
supporters of multiregional model argue that since none of populations were isolated individuals & their genes moved freely & humanity developed as a single unified species simultaneously
multiregional model seems to explain from of __ __ among modern human populations anatomical variations
data supporting replacement model is based on biochemical & genetic evidence
replacement model has taken evidence from __ __ showing all living humans share at least one common ancestor mitochondrial DNA
DNA from remains of archaic Homo populations shows that __ & __ ancestral populations split 370,000 yr ago human & Neanderthal
hybridization model provides __ __ between multiregional & replacement models common ground
__ model has the most recent data supporting it & is widely accepted in biological sciences replacement
__ __ of Neanderthals show complex culture is not limited to modern Homo sapiens burial practices
Shanidar Cave, Iraq, shows Neanderthals had __ __ for burial of dead, through the high levels of pollen in graves indicating burial with flowers symbolic rituals
Moula-Guercy cave in France shows evidence that Neanderthals practiced cannibalism
made tools of much greater sophistication, efficiency, & variety than any prior species Homo sapiens sapiens
critical innovation of Homo sapiens sapiens was the __ __, made of several wood, bone, & stone pieces bound together compound tool
extremely __ __ tools have been found in eastern Congo, dated between 75,000-180,000 yr old making older than any sapiens sapiens tools found in Europe complex bone
shortly after modern people appeared __ __ of large mammals became extinct 50 genera
domestication of plants & animals involved substantial increases in the amount of work humans had to do
origin of current industrialized society lies in the move to dependency on __ __ & __ 10,000 yr ago domesticated plants; animals
geographical gradient cline
pattern of __ __ distribution leads anthropologists to believe having one/another gives specific advantages/disadvantages under different environmental conditions blood type
good example of trait that follows clinal distribution sickle cell gene
sickle cell gene is common in areas that have a high incidence of malaria
skin color is a complex trait because little known about geographic distribution & their __ significance adaptive
all humans have about the same number of melanocytes
amount of __ produced by melanocytes differs among human populations melanin
melanin in the skin absorbs __ __ protecting people from form of skin cancer ultraviolet rays
in northern latitudes light skin color must confer some __ advantage reproductive
melanin reduces the amount of ultraviolet light to interact with cells that produce vitamin D precursors
apply their knowledge of physical anthropology to identification of skeletal or badly decomposed human remains forensic anthropologists
one of Guatemala's leading human rights activists Karen Fisher
almost killed in 9/11 attacks & ended up working w/NY Medical Examiner's office in identifying more than 16,000 body parts at the disaster site Amy Mundorff
conducts forensic casework in TX & AZ; collects data on US/Mexico border-crossing fatalities Kate Spradley
forensic anthropologist at U of TX that unearthed a body under a houses foundation Michelle Hamilton
50% of the world's 634 recognized species & subspecies of __ are listed as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered primates
In __ 71% of primates are listed as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered Asia
37% of __ primates are listed as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered Africa's
one key factor threatening primate populations is destruction of habitat
in some areas combination of __ increase & __ demand resulted in destruction of 90% of original habitat for primates population; commercial