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Anthr. & Human Diver

Chapter 1 - ANT2410

comparative study of human societies & cultures anthropology
an approach that considers culture, history, language, & biology essential to a complete understanding of human society holistic/holism
learned behaviors & symbols allowing people to live in groups; primary means by which humans adapt to their environments; way of life characteristic of a particular human society culture
group of people who depend on one another for survival/well-being, as well as relationships among such people, incl. status/role society
description of a society/culture ethnography
examining society using concepts, categories, & distinctions that are meaningful to members of that culture emic
examining society using concepts, categories, & rules derived from science; outsider's perspective, which produces analyses that members of society being studied may not find meaningful etic
attempt to find general principles/laws that govern cultural phenomenon ethnology
study of human thought, meaning, & behavior that is learned rather than genetically transmitted, & that is typical of groups of people cultural anthropology
description of the cultural past based on written records, interviews, & archeology ethnohistory
branch of linguistics concerned w/understanding language & its relation to culture linguistic anthropology
study relationships among languages to better understand the histories/migrations of those who speak them historical linguistics
sub-discipline of anthropology; focuses on reconstruction of past cultures based on their material remains archaeology
societies for which we have no usable written records prehistoric
any object made/modified by human beings; generally used to refer to objects made by past cultures artifact
archeological investigation of towns & cities as well as process of urbanization urban archeology
protection & management of archeological, archival, & architectural resources cultural resource management (CRM)
sub-discipline of anthropology; studies people from a biological perspective, primarily aspects of humankind that are genetically inherited biological anthropology
biological anthropology is also called __ anthropology physical
__ anthropology includes osteology, nutrition, demography, epidemiology, & primatology biological
sub-discipline of anthropology; concerned w/tracing evolution of humankind in the fossil record paleoanthroplogy
sub-discipline of anthropology; map & explaining physiological differences among modern human groups & attempt to explain the sources of diversity human variation
member of biological order of mammals that incl. human beings, apes, & monkeys as well as prosimians (lemurs, tarsiers, & others) primate
subfield of cultural anthropology; concerned w/experience of disease as well as its distribution, prevention & treatments, with regarding to its understanding & treatment in different cultures medical anthropology
application of anthropology to solution of human problems applied anthropology
societies that have occupied a regions for a long time & are recognized by other groups as its original (or very ancient) inhabitants indigenous people
application of biological anthropology to identification of skeletalized/badly decomposed human remains forensic anthropology
judging other cultures from perspective of one's own culture; notion that one's own culture is more beautiful, rational, & nearer to perfection than any other ethnocentrism
situation where social/moral norms are confused/entirely absent; often caused by rapid social change anomie
belief that some human populations are superior to others because of inherited, genetically transmitted characteristics racism
notion that cultures should be analyzed w/reference to their own histories & values, in terms of the cultural whole, rather than according to values of another culture cultural relativism
notion that all human groups have the same biological & mental capabilities biopsychological equality
One of the critical goals of cultural anthropology as an academic discipline is to __, __ & __ different cultures describe; analyze; explain
The attitude toward magic and ritual among the Nacirema indicates that __ & __ can be found in a wide variety of cultures magic; ritual
The work of anthropologists has helped to __ & __ our tendency towards ethnocentrism challenge; correct
Traits such as skin color, hair color and texture, and nose shape are often chosen to determine race because they are easily visible
Stone Age tribes (in the sense of cultures untouched by the rest of the world and living in about the same way that they did many generations ago) __ __ in the modern world don't exist
anthropology is __ in that it attempts to understand similarities & differences among human cultures comparative
anthropologists attempt to comprehend the entire human experience
interest in humankind & our closest relations throughout time & in all parts of the world distinguishes anthropology as a __ & __ discipline scientific; humanistic
anthropologists insist we must study people living in many different cultures, times & places in order to understand humanity
separates anthropology from other academic disciplines which generally focus on only one factor holism
societies are increasingly __ rather than __ phenomenon global; local
attempts to describe an entire society/particular set of cultural institutions or practices ethnographer
compare & contrast practices in different cultures to find regularities ethnologist
subfield of cultural anthropology; concerned w/issues of nationalism, citizenship, the state, colonialism, & globalism political & legal anthropology
subfield of cultural anthropology; focused on personal, ethical, & political choices facing humans humanistic anthropology
subfield of cultural anthropology; study of visual representation & the media visual anthropology
cultural anthropologists are often interested in __ & __ the ways in which cultures change documenting; understanding
want to understand how language is structured, how it is learned, & how communication takes place linguistic anthropologists
when we speak, we perform
can turn a serious phrase comic, or a comic phrase serious inflection
ways in which people perform language is the way that they __ & __ the meanings of their words change; modify
understanding __ __ & the relationships between languages helps us to work out the past of the people who speak them linguistic change
more interested in understanding/explaining their finds in terms of what they say about the behavior that produced them contemporary archaeologists
urban archaeologists uncover knowledge of people that has been left out of history books
cultural resource management (CRM) are often employed by federal, state, & local governments
human adaptation is ___, involving both biological & cultural dimensions biocultural
study of human nutrition osteology
statistical study of human population demography
study of patterns of disease epidemiology
biological anthropology is best known for the study of human evolution & biological processes involved in human adaptation
search for origins of humanity using fossil record to trace history of human evolution paleoanthropologists
human species evolved through a complex __ __, involving both biological & cultural factors feedback system
human's unique evolutionary history resulted in development of the biological structure of the __, capable of inventing, learning, & using cultural adaptation brain
has freed humans from slow process of biological adaptation, populations can invent new ways of dealing w/problems almost immediately, or adopt solutions from other societies cultural adaptation
study of the complex relationship between biological & cultural evolution links biological anthropology, __ anthropology, & __ cultural; archaeology
studied for clues that their chemistry, physiology, morphology, & behavior provide about our own species primates
two well-known anthropologists who studied primates in the wild Jane Goodall & Dian Fossey
died in 1985 & worked w/gorillas in Rwanda Dian Fossey
works w/chimpanzees in Tanzania Jane Goodall
generally trained in (1) of (4) disciplines & work w/governments, corporations, & other organizations to use anthropological research techniques to solve social, political, & economic problems applied anthropologists
specialists in each of the subfields of anthropology make contributions to applied work
founded by David Maybury-Lewis Cultural Survival
organization devoted to welfare of indigenous peoples living in the tropical rainforests Avenir des Peuples des Forets Tropicales/The Future of Tropical Rainforest Peoples
grew out of anthropological studies of non-Western societies mediation
establishing the __ __ has often enabled native peoples to gain access to land & resources that historically belonged to them archaeological record
the way an anthropologist demands that we open our eyes & experience the world in new ways most important aspect of anthropology
draw upon social, cultural, biological & linguistic anthropology to better understand those factors that influence health & well-being medical anthropologists
tends to regard diseases as universal entities, regardless of their contexts modern biomedicine
adapt the holistic & ethnographic approaches of anthropology to study of health/disease medical anthropologists
medical anthropologists found that disease/medicine are never __ of particular cultural & historical contest independent
health & disease are ___ socio-cultural & political-economic concepts fundamentally
Arthur Kleinman (psychologist) noted the body connects individual & group experience; implication is that medical ills are closely related to social problems
examined the special facilities for terminally comatose Sharon R. Kaufman
analysis of families w/autistic children Jules Henry (1973)
study of ghost possession Ruth & Stanley Freed (1985)
examined socialization of doctors who specialized in psychiatry in the US; psych training takes either/or approach & residents must decide which way they fall by their 2nd yr Tanya Luhrmann (2000)
anthropology is the conscious attempt to allow people to see beyond its bounds
all of us use __ anthropology when we bring understandings & insight to bear on problems of poverty, education, war & peace applied
__ __ of anthropology is to demonstrate importance & variability of culture in human societies major contribution
ethnocentrism is maladaptive
transformation from ethnocentrism to racism underlies much of the structural __ that characterizes modern history inequality
maintain that for the sake of scientific accuracy, anthropologists must suspend judgment on order to understand the logic & dynamics of other cultures cultural relativists
researchers who view actions of other people in terms of degree to which they correspond to observer's notions of right/wrong systematically __ the cultures they study distort
notion that because no universal standard of behaviors exists people should not judge behaviors as good/evil moral relativism
by becoming aware of __ __ we are able to see ourselves as others see us & use that knowledge to make constructive changes in our own society cultural alternatives
compared w/other closely related species the human species shows extremely low levels of __ & __ diversity morphological; serological
skeletal morphological
blood type serological
systems of __ __ reflect history and social hierarchy rather than biology racial classification
__ & __ are realities, but are not rooted in biological differences between people racism; prejudice
arbitrary selection of traits used to define race; inability to adequately describe within-species variation through use of racial categories; repeated independent evolution of so-called racial characteristics in populations w/no genetic relationship 3 problems w/ notion of biological race
there is no way to weight importance of any __ in determining racial classification trait
schemes of racial classifications select very __ numbers of traits & ignore others small
measured __, you are about as different from another person of your race as you are from another person of a different race genetically
most theories of race assume that people who share similar __ __ share similar origins racial characteristics
due to __the groups anthropologists are working w/have been pushed into smaller land & decimated by disease & exploited by corps/government/tourists globalization
globalization has changed the way in which anthropologists work & write, focusing on the particular unique __ between those they study & the rest of the world exchanges
anthropology is the __ __ that focuses on understanding other groups of people university discipline
anthropologists can look at culture simply as a __ __ of everything humans have done, thought, created & believed sum total
in the 1940s __ __ listed 77 characteristics that he believed were common to all cultures George Murdock
notes that human universals are very diverse & there is likely no single explanation for them Brown
thinking about ___ among cultures may guide us in our attempt to understand human nature commonalities
culture is a set of behaviors, beliefs, understandings, objects, & ways of interacting that enable a group to __ w/greater/lesser success & greater/lesser longevity survive
problems that the world today faces are the result of our attempt to live together as a __ on this planet group
excessive pride/confidence that leads to both arrogance & insolence toward others hubris
implies a humble striving for perfection along with the realization that such perfection cannot be reached arete
members of industrialized cultures had reached virtually every group of people in the world by the time of WWI
British organization that promotes interests of native peoples, reports that today there are about 70 tribes that choose to reject contact w/outsiders Survival International
groups are neither unknown or undiscovered; contact w/neighboring tribes, or members have visited the outside world; composed of descendants of survivors of bloody/violent contact w/outside world in 19th-20th centuries "uncontacted"
members of uncontacted tribes are people who __ of the outside world & choose to flee from it know