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Science Explosion 05

BJU 6th Science - Chapter 4

Organism a complete living thing
Life span process of birth, growth, reproduction and death
Life cycle life span
Environment surroundings
Energy ability to do work
Cell tiny unit of living material surrounded by a thin membrane
Cell theory theory that all living things are made of cells
Microscope uses lenses to magnify objects
Specimen object looked at under a microscope
Slide glass plate on which specimen is placed
Unicellular an organism consisting of one cell
Multicellular an organism consisting of many specialized cells
Tissue a group of cells working together
Organ different types of tissue working together; an example is the heart
System group of organs working together; an example is the circulatory system
Cell membrane a cell’s external boundary for the material inside the cell
Cytoplasm a jellylike substance made mostly of water and containing many substances, such as proteins and fats, that are essential to the cell
Organelle a tiny structure inside the cytoplasm of most cells that helps carry out the function of the cell
Nucleus a large organelle that contains the chromosomes
Chromosome tight bundles of DNA; usually found in the nucleus of a cell
Mitochondria the cell’s engine; responsible for breaking down the cell’s food and releasing energy
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) the cell’s system of passageways that allows material to move from one part of the cell to another
Ribosome makes proteins that the cell needs
Vacuole a bubble-like organelle in cells; generally used for storage
Cell wall a rigid structure that provides support for some kinds of cells
Chloroplast organelles that contain chlorophyll; organelles in which photosynthesis takes place
Chlorophyll a green pigment that absorbs energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food and energy for the plant
Cytologist a scientist who studies cells
Cell division process where a cell divides into 2 cells
Mitosis division process where 2 new cells are created which are identical to the parent cell
Sexual reproduction process of creating new life from 2 parent cells
Meiosis process where chromosomes duplicate once and cells divide twice
Criteria A standard, rule, or test on which a judgment or decision can be based
Classification way of organizing organisms according to characteristics; Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> Species
Bacteria smallest living thing known to man, unicellular, live in colonies
Colony group of bacteria
Protozoan the more animal-like organisms in the kingdom Protista; able to move around and often live in water
Algae plantlike organisms in Kingdom Protista; usually can perform photosynthesis and are not mobile
Leaven yeast
Photosynthesis process used by plants to convert sunlight (energy) to a usable source of energy (sugar)
Common name a widely recognized name
Kingdom broadest category of living things
Phylum primary division under each Kingdom
Class the groups that the phylum is broken down into
Order the third grouping under Kingdom; further divides the class
Family Order breaks into the classification of family
Genus the first name in a scientific name
Species the second name in a scientific name
Scientific name unique to each organism; 2 parts-the Genus name and the species name Example: Canis familiaris (dog)
Created by: MrsDunham