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Science Explosion 03

BJU 6th Grade - Chapter 2

Sedimentary Rock formed when layers of sediment and organisms harden; one of three main categories of rocks
Igneous Rock formed as magma and lava harden
Metamorphic Rock formed deep below the earth's crust by heat and pressure
Rock cycle The changing and transforming of the rock as it undergoes weathering, heat and pressure
Weathering The process of breaking down rocks
Mechanical weathering The process of breaking down rock into smaller and smaller pieces
Chemical weathering The process of decomposing rocks into new substances
Uniformitarianism People who believe that studying the present processes in nature explain the past
Carbonic acid A weak acid formed from water and carbon dioxide
Speleothem Various formations in caverns that form as dissolved calcite is deposited out of the water
Stalagmite A cave formation that builds on the floor of a cave; made from the drippings of dissolved calcite
Stalactite A cave formation that hangs from the ceiling of a cave; made from the dripping of dissolved calcite
Soil The loose material at the surface of the earth
Humus Decayed organic material found in soil
Pedologist A scientist who studies soil
Sand The largest particle of soil; It does not retain water in the soil
Clay The smallest particle of soil; holds nutrients and water but does not have room for air
Silt A tiny particle of soil that allows water and air to mix in the soil
Texture The amount of each kind of particle in a soil sample
Loam Soil that has properties of all three soil particles-sand, silt, and clay
Horizon The multiple layers of soil
Topsoil The layer of soil in which most plants germinate and where roots grow
Subsoil The layer of soil that contains nutrients from the humus that have washed down through the upper layers and weathered minerals from the parent rock below
Bedrock The layer underneath the soil that consists of unweathered rock; also called regolith
Sediment Small particles produced by the weathering of rocks
Erosion The action of weathered material moving from one location to another
Agents of erosion A vehicle, such as gravity, water, wind, or ice, that causes erosion
Deposition The dropping of sediment and rocks in a new location by gravity, wind, water, or ice
Mass movement Erosion that occurs where gravity is the primary factor
Load The sediment that a stream carries
Delta The area at the mouth of a river where sediment is deposited
Birdfoot delta The name of an unusual-shaped delta that sprawls in all directions
Deflation The action of the wind blowing and picking up loose sediment and carrying it away
Dust storm A storm caused by wind blowing small, loose particles high into the air
Sandstorm A storm caused by wind blowing sand particles along the ground
Glacier Ice formation formed where layers of unmelted snow compact into ice
Plucking The action of a glacier pulling a huge piece of bedrock loose as the glacier slides down a mountain
Moraine The pile of sediment deposited by a glacier as it melts and recedes
Created by: MrsDunham