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Chap. - 26


person breaths in air but it gets stuck in their lungs and can't exhale all the air from their lungs, resulting in the barrel-chested look, in a patient with COPD
Because patients w/COPD fully exhale, there is a build-up of CO2 in the lungs
The drive for a person to breath islcaused by the low CO2 levels which stimulates the body to intake more oxygen/air.
If you give a person with COPD high level of __, more CO2 will build up in their body further decreasing their respiratory rate. oxygen
In newborns born very prematurely, growth of the blood vessels supplying the __ may stop for a period of time & when growth resumes, it occurs in a disorganized fashion. retina
during disorganized rapid growth, the small blood vessels may bleed and eventually lead to __ scarring
may also increase the risk of retinopathy of prematurity high blood oxygen levels
In the most severe cases,disorganized rapid growth may ultimately result in __ of the retina from the back of the eye and loss of vision detachment
involves abnormal development of lung tissue, characterized by inflammation and scarring in the lungs bronchopulmonary dysplasia
bronchopulmonary dysplasia develops in __ __ __ who have received high levels of oxygen for long periods of time or who have been on a ventilator during treatment for respiratory distress syndrome severely ill infants
bronchopulmonary dysplasia is __ __ in infants born early (premature) whose lungs were not fully developed at birth. more common
insufficient oxygen hypoxia
can be administered via endotracheal intubation, nasal cannula, masks, tents, & hoods oxygen
O2 delivered at high concentration/prolonged periods of time can cause hypoventilation, particularly w/COPD leading to CO2 retention & acidosis
O2 delivered at high concentration/prolonged periods of time can lead to confusion
O2 delivered at high concentration/prolonged periods of time can lead to changes in the __ of the lungs alveoli
O2 delivered at high concentration/prolonged periods of time can lead to __ in premature infants blindness
smoking, matches & electrical equipment that may spark are __ __ in rooms were O2 is used not allowed
act by relaxing smooth muscles of bronchial tree, thereby relieving bronchospasm & increasing vital capacity of lungs bronchodilators
bronchodilators are used in symptomatic treatment of acute resp. conditions such as asthma/COPD
potent bronchodilators that increase vital capacity & decrease airway resistance sympathomimetics
sympathomimetics work on smooth muscle in lungs to cause relaxation
sympathomimetics can affect the entire __ nervous system sympathetic
ease of use, efficacy & portability are all advantages of MDIs
manufacturers are DC productions of MDIs due to the ban on CFC
provide medication only under pressure of inspiration, rather than through compression valve breath-actuated inhalers
andrenergic drug side effects related to __ incl. nervousness, tremor, dizziness CNS
andrenergic drug side effects related to __ incl. tachycardia, palpitations, arrhythmias, angina heart
andrenergic drug side effects related to __ __ incl. cardiovascular effects vital signs
andrenergic drug side effects related to __ __ incl. hyperglycemia blood sugar
route of administration for albuterol (Proventil) MDI, inhal sol, tabs
route of administration for epinephrine (Primatene, Adrenalin) MDI, IM/subQ
route of administration for terbutaline sulfate (Brethine) SubQ, tabs
Xanthines, dosage based on response & drug levels; IV slowly aminophylline
Xanthines, tabs ER theophylline (Uniphyl)
Xanthines, caps ER theophylline (Theo-24)
for increasing rate of absorption Xanthines should be taken with full glass of water on empty stomach
to decrease irritation caused by Xanthines take with meals
IM injection is contraindication for administration of Xanthines
side effects related to __ __ incl. nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, abdominal cramps, anorexia, or diarrhea GI distress