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Physiology Chapter 2

Chemical Compositions of the Body

What is the smallest units of the chemical elements Atoms
What 3 things are atoms composed of? Protons, neutrons, and electrons
What 2 things are found in the nucleus of an atom? Protons and neutrons
The sum of protons and neutrons in an atom is called what? Atomic mass
The nuber of protons in an atom refers to what? Atomic number
What type of electrons are found in the outermost shell and participate in chemical reactions and form bonds? Valence electrons
Does the electrons in the more distant shells have a higher or lower energy? Higher
The number of shells in an atom depends on what? Atomic number
In isotopes the atomic mass is different because they contain different numbers of what? Neutrons
What are considered different forms of the same atom? Isotopes
In isotopes, what number is the same? Atomic number(protons)
Water is an example of what type of covalent bond? Polar
What type of bond occur when atoms share valence electrons? Covalent
In what type of covalent bond are electrons shared equally? Nonpolar
In what type of covalent bond are electrons shared unequally? Polar
What type of bond occurs when valence electrons are transferred from one atom to another? Ionic
Atom that loses electrons becomes what? cation (+ charged)
Atom that gain electrons become what? anion (- charged)
How are ionic bonds formed? Attraction of + and - charged
What bonds are weaker, ionic bonds or polar covalent bonds? Ionic bonds
Molecules that are soluble in water are called what? Hydrophilic
What are 2 example of hydrophilic mollecules? Glucose and amino acids
Molecules that are nonpolar and cannot form hydration spheres are refered to as what? Hydrophobic
Molecules are formed through interaction of ___________ _________between two or more atoms. Valence electrons
What is formed through interaction of the valence electronsof two or more atoms? Molecules
What is the result when atoms share their valence electrons? Covalent bonds
What results when one or more valence electron from one atom are completely transferred to a second atom? Ionic bonds
Atoms or molecules that have a negative or positive charges are called what? Ion
Positively charged ions are called what? Cations
Negatively charged ions are called what? anions
What are 3 types of Carbohydrates? Monosaccharides, disaccharide, and polysaccharide
What are the 3 monosaccharides? Fructose, glucose and galactose
What are the 3 disaccharides? Sucrose, maltose, and lactose
What are the 2 types of polysaccharides? Starch and glycogen
When numerous monosaccharides are joined together the resulting molecule is what? Polysaccharides
What are 2 monosaccharides joined covalently called? Disaccharides
What occurs by splitting water out of 2 monosaccharides? Disaccharides
What 2 monosaccharides make sucrose (table sugar)? glucose and fructose
What 2 monosaccharides make lactose? glucose and galactose
What 2 monosaccharides make maltose? 2 glucose molecules
What are 2 examples of polymers containing thousands of glucoses? Starch and glycogen
What are the energy storage molecules called? Polysaccharides (starches and glycogen)
Monosaccharides are bonded together covalently to form Disaccharides and polysaccharides by a type of reaction called what? Dehydration synthesis or condensation
What reaction occurs in the digestion of disaccharides and polysaccharides? Hydrolysis
What organic molecules are insoluble in polar solvents such as water and considered hydrophobic? Lipids
What is formed by condensation of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids? Triglycerides
What type of fatty acids have 1 c=c with hydrogens that share the double bond on the same side of the fatty acid chain, such as oleic acid and the configuration makes the fatty acid bend? Cis fatty acids
What are the 2 types of triglycerides fatty acids? Cis and Trans
What fatty acids have 1 c=c with hydrogens that share the double bond on opposite sides of the fatty acid chain, such as elaidic acid and this configuration makes the fatty acid straight? Trans fatty acids
What can occur when ketone bodies in blood lower the pH? Ketoacidosis
Hydrolysis of triglycerides within adiopose tissues releases free fatty acids called what? Ketone bodies
Free fatty acids can be used as an immediate source of energy by many organs; they can also be converted by the liver into derivatives called what? Ketone bodies
What are lipids that contain a phosphate group? Phospholipids
Phospholipids act as what by reducing surface tension? Surfactants
What part of the phospholipid is polar and hydrophilic? Phosphate
What part of the phospholipid is nonpolar and hydrophobic? Lipid
What are the 4 types of lipids? Triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, prostoglandins
What type of lipids are fatty acids with cyclic hydrocarbon group that is produced by and active in most tissues? Prostoglandins
What type of lipid all have 3 6-carbon rings joined to a 5-carbon ring? Steroids
Why are steroids included in the lipid category of molecules? They are nonpolar and insoluble in water
What are 2 types of nucleic acids? RNA and DNA
Nucleic Acids are made of long chains of what? Nucleotides
What 3 things does nucleotides consist of? 5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
What are the 2 types of nitrogenous bases? Pyrimidines and purines
Which nitrogenous base contains 2 rings? Purine
Which nitrogenous base contains only 1 ring? Pyrimidines
What are 3 example of proteins that are conjugated with other groups? Lipoproteins, glycoproteins, and hemoglobin
DNA and RNA are made up of long chains of what? Nucleotides
What are the 4 bases of DNA? Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine
What are the 4 bases of RNA? Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and urasil
What bases are purines? Guanine and adenine
What bases are pyrimidines? Cytosine and thymine/urasil
How are peptides formed? Dehydration reaction
What are amino acids linked by? Peptide bonds
What do you call short chains of amino acids (<100)? Peptides
Proteins are made up of long chains of what? Amino acids (>100)
What is produced when a covalent bond is formed between two amino acids? Water
Long chains of amino acids make up what? Proteins
Phospholipids aggregate into what in water? Micelles
The _________part of the phospholipids interacts with water while the _________part is hidden in the middle. Polar/nonpolar
Does saturated fats have a single or double covalent bond? Single
Does unsaturated fats have a single or double covalent bond? Double
Created by: seshelby62