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Chap. - 24


Contains the same dose of Estrogen and Progestin for 3 weeks and 1 week of inert pills (no hormone) monophasic combination oral contraceptives
Contains the same doses of Estrogen and Progestin which varies at 1 week intervals for a total of 3 weeks and 1 week of inert pills (no hormone) Triphasic Combination Oral Contraceptives
Contains progesterone only which effects the function of uterine endometrium Progestin IUD
Contains high doses of estrogen intended to be taken all in one day Emergency Contraceptive Kit
Contains both estrogen and progestin which are absorbed in high levels by transdermal route Estrogen Transdermal Patch
places women at risk for hemorrhage during labor, delivery, & postpartum oxcytocin induction
emergency contraceptive kit has been approved by FDA for __ purchase OTC
high risk of thromboembolism & strokes in women over 35 who smoke estrogen preparations
usually used as bronchodilator but can also be used to treat preterm labor terbutaline
risk for severe hypotension especially if taken with nitroglycerin for angina sildenafil (Viagra)
must be closely monitored for risk of resp. paralysis that may be fatal magnesium sulfate
chemical substances that originate within different areas of body that regulate functions of reproductive systems endogenous
secreted by anterior & posterior pituitary lobes gonadotropins
include: FSH, LH, & LTH gonadotropic hormones
stimulates development of ovarian follicles in female & sperm production in testes of male follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
works in conjunction w/FSH to induce secretion of estrogen, ovulation, & development of corpus luteum luteinizing hormone (LH)
stimulates secretion of progesterone by corpus luteum & secretion of milk by mammary gland luteotropic hormone (LTH)
LTH is termed lactogenic hormone
male hormones; secreted mainly in interstitial tissues of testes & secondarily in adrenal glands of both sexes androgens
stimulate development of male characteristics testosterone & andosterone
male hormone; medication used for replacement therapy and other uses testosterone
may be due to: pituitary malfunction/atrophy, injury to/removal of testes/castration which results in eunuchism or eunuchoidism inadequate production of androgens
include: retarded development of sex organs, absence of body hair/beard, high-pitched voice, & lack of muscular development eunuchoid characteristics
may also result in impotence/deficient sperm production hypogonadism
deficient sperm production oligospermia
use of androgens in cases of diminished testicular hormone testosterone replacement
a condition in which one or both testes fail to descend normally cryptorchidism
cryptorchidism or delayed puberty in the male are considered congenital hypogonadism
inflammation of a testis orchitis
orchitis, trauma, tumor, radiation, surgery of testicles or drug-induced are considered acquired hypogonadism
androgens can be used for __ treatment of females w/advance metastatic (skeletal) carcinoma of breast palliative
androgen used in treatment of advance metastatic (skeletal) carcinoma of breast in the female methyltestosterone
androgen used in treatment of endometriosis & fibrocystic breast disease danazol
indicated for side effect of edema w/androgens diuretics
acne, increased oiliness of skin/hair, or alopecia; jaundice & hepatitis; premature closure of bone ends in adolescents w/stunting of growth are all side effects of androgens
side effects of __ __ __ can include increased LDL, decreased HDL, & insulin resistance androgen drug therapy
patients being treated w/androgen who have cardiac, renal & liver dysfunctions may experience edema
for geriatric males being treated w/androgens may have an increased risk of __ __ and carcinoma or over-stimulation sexually prostatic hypertrophy
patients who are diabetic, obese, or dyslipidemia androgens are contraindicated
androgens can cause interactions w/ __ __, potentiation may cause bleeding oral anticoagulants
androgens can cause interactions w/ diabetic medication caused decreased blood glucose & decreased insulin requirements
antiandrogens that interact with androgens are dutasteride & finasteride
illegal use of anabolic steroids can have potentially serious adverse effects of the development of __ with delusions, paranoia, depression, mania & aggression w/violence psychosis
due to an increased cancer risk, the FDA (but not approved) warned 23 companies to stop manufacturing, marketing, & distributing Andro, Androstene (androstenedione)
all androgen agents are classified as a __ __ (C-III) by DEA due to abuse potential controlled substance
sexual side effects that females can experience from androgens include hirsutism & voice deepening
excessive growth of hair of normal or abnormal distribution hirsutism
class of drug given orally for treatment of male erectile dysfunction (ED)/impotence phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors
first PDE inhibitor approved by FDA to treat ED sildenafil (Viagra)
other PDE inhibitor(s) approved by FDA to treat ED vardenafil (Levitra) & tadalafil (Cialis)
side effects include: headache, flushing, abnormal vision, dizziness; dyspepsia, nasal congestion, rhinitis, diarrhea, rash; cardio events incl angina, syncope, tachycardia, palpitation, & hypotension PDE inhibitors
concurrent use of nitrates or alpha-blockers is contraindicated because use with PDE inhibitors potentiates hypotensive effects
a contraindication of PDE inhibitors includes erections lasting >4h; resulting in tissue damage & __ loss of potency permanent
PDE inhibitors are contraindicated for older adults and patient w/preexisting cardiovascular risk factors
PDE inhibitors are contraindicated for patients with __ or __ function impairment hepatic; renal
nitrates, antiretroviral protease inhibitors, macrolides, & some antifungals interact w/PDE inhibitors by prolonging hypotensive effects
PDE inhibitors should not be taken concurrently with __ __, potentiates hypotensive effects grapefruit juice
female sex hormones; produced mainly by ovary & secondarily by adrenal glands; responsible for development of female secondary characteristics estrogens
during menstrual cycle estrogens act on female genitalis to produce environment suitable for fertilization, implantation, & nutrition of early embryo
estrogens affect secretion of FSH & LH from anterior pituitary by inhibiting lactation & ovulation
sometimes used in management of severe menopausal symptoms that do not respond to one hormone alone estrogen & testosterone
associated w/increased risk of endometrial carcinoma in women w/intact uterus estrogen therapy (ET)
when __ is combined with estrogen, the risk of endometrial cancer is substantially reduced progestin
progestin & estrogen is combined hormone therapy (HT)
main thrust of __ __ was to determine the exact degree to which HTs presumably protect heart & degree to which some of the potential risks of HTs canceled out WHI study
WHI study also explored whether HTs __ fractures, colon cancer, & dementia incl. Alzheimer's disease prevented
WHI study announced the risks of combined HTs __ its benefits when used to prevent certain diseases outweighed
WHI study announced the risks of combined HTs could actually __ __ of certain conditions it was being used to prevent increase risk
ACOG recommendations state __ __ should not be used for prevention of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, due to small/significant increased risk of breast cancer, heart attack, stroke, & blood clots combined HT
ACOG recommendations state that should not be used for women who have had a hysterectomy for the prevention of diseases, due to increased risk of blood clots & stroke estrogen-alone therapy
ACOG recommendations state that women w/a uterus should not use estrogen alone due to increased risk of __ cancer uterine
ACOG recommendations state that HTs are appropriate for relief of vasomotor symptoms
ACOG recommendations state that women in combined HT or ET should take __ __ __ for shortest possible time & annually review decision to take hormones smallest effective dose
women who use the patch contraceptives may __ risks for blood clots reduce
blood clot risk for oral contraceptives may be higher due to the pills being broken down in the liver, where __ involved in formation of blood clots are activated proteins
estrogens in skin patches are released directly into the bloodstream bypassing the liver completely
used for treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease; trade name for danazol Danocrine
androgen agent used for treatment of anemia of renal disease nandrolone
androgen agent used for treatment of cachexia; trade name for oxandrolone Oxandrin
androgen agent used for treatment of hypogonadism, advanced breast cancer; trade name for testosterone Depo-Testosterone, Testoderm, Androderm, AndroGel
androgen agent used for treatment of menopausal symptoms if estrogen insufficient alone; trade name for testosterone/estrogen Estratest
impotence agent used for treatment of erectile dysfunction, but no effect in absence of sexual stimulation; trade name for sildenafil Viagra
impotence agent used for treatment of erectile dysfunction, but no effect in absence of sexual stimulation; trade name for tadalafil Cialis
impotence agent used for treatment of erectile dysfunction, but no effect in absence of sexual stimulation; trade name for vardenafil Levitra
contraceptives used to treat menstrual irregularities & dysmenorrhea estrogen & progestin combination
ET used to treat menopausal mild-moderate depression only is unable/unwilling to take SSRIs
ET used to treat female hypogonadism due to __ pathology or oophorectomy ovarian
ET used to treat postmenopausal prevention of osteoporosis only if __ to take other agents, or if benefits outweigh risks unable
ET used to treat postmenopausal to reduce __ disease & elevate the HDL in women (conflicting studies cardiovascular
ET used to treat __ __ from decreased secretions, in a low-dose vaginal cream atrophic vaginitis
ET used to treat __ after rape or incest (within 24-48h) in a single large dose to prevent, not terminate, pregnancy postcoital
ET used in palliative treatment for males with advanced, inoperable prostate cancer
hormone secreted by corpus luteum & adrenal glands; resp. for changes in uterine endometrium in 2nd 1/2 of menstrual cycle in prep from implantation of fertilized ovum, devel. maternal placenta after implantation, & devel. mammary glands progesterone
synthetic drugs that exert progesterone-like activity progestins
incl: irregular menses & amenorrhea, breakthrough bleeding/spotting; edema/weight gain; thromboembolic disorders side effects of progestins
progestins are contraindicated for women who are pregnant because of potential adverse effects on the fetus
progestins are contraindicated for breast, cervical, uterine, & vaginal cancer treatment except for palliative treatment
estrogen used in treatment of menopause, prostate cancer, breast cancer, dysfunctional uterine bleeding; trade name for estradiol Estrace
estrogen used in treatment of menopause only; trade name for estradiol Estrasorb, Estro Gel, Estraderm, Vivelle, Depo-Estradiol
estrogen used in treatment of female hypogonadism, breast engorgement, prostate cancer, menopausal sx; trade name for conjugated estrogens Premarin
estrogen used in treatment of female hypogonadism, menopausal symptoms; dysfunctional uterine bleeding; trade name for esterified estrogens Estratab, Ogen
progestins used in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, menopausal symptoms, contraception; trade name for medroxyprogesterone Provera, Depo-Provera
progestins used in treatment of endometrial & breast cancer, anorexia, & cachexia of AIDS; trade name for megestrol acetate Megace
combinations used in treatment for menopausal symptoms, female hypogonadism; trade name for conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone Premphase, Prempro
combinations used in treatment for menopausal symptoms; trade name for estradiol/norethindrone CombiPatch
estrogen contraceptive monophasic preparations containing same proportion of estrogen & progesterone in each tablet 50mcg Ovral, Ovcon-50,
estrogen contraceptive monophasic preparations containing same proportion of estrogen & progesterone in each tablet 35mcg Norinyl I/50 & I/35, Brevicon, Ortho-Cyclen
estrogen contraceptive monophasic preparations containing same proportion of estrogen & progesterone in each tablet 30mcg Lo-Ovral, Loestrin, Yasmin
estrogen contraceptive monophasic preparations containing same proportion of estrogen & progesterone in each tablet 20mcg Loestrin
estrogen contraceptive monophasic preparation; 20mcg estrogen patch Ortho Evra
Biphasic prep; 2 sequences progestin, 1 part estrogen; 35 mcg estrogen Ortho Novum 10/11, Neocon 10/11
triphasic prep; 3 sequences progestin, 1 part estrogen; dose varies Seasonale/Triphasil, Ortho Novum 7/7/7, Tri-Cyclen
progestin-only prep; PO Micronor/Ovrette
progestin-only prep; IM Depo-Provera
progestin-only prep; IUD Mirena
postcoital contraception; PO must be administered within 72h Ovral
postcoital contraception; estrogen/progestin; emergency contraceptive kit Preven
postcoital contraception; mifepristone RU486; PO 600 mg once then 2 days later misoprostol 400mg; must follow protocol carefully Mifeprex
medication used in management of pre-term labor terbutaline (Brethine)
medication used to induce labor by causing uterus to contract oxytocin
chorionic gonadotropin (Prosafil) is used to induce ovulation in women who have been treated with menotropins
pregnant women should avoid taking estrogen because it can cause serious fetal toxicity
oxytocics³; administration PO or IM dosage varies; used to treat postpartum hemorrhage; trade name for methylergonovine Methergine
oxytocics³; administration IV or nasal spray; used for labor induction & postpartum hemorrhage; trade name for oxytocin Pitocin
prostaglandins; administration vaginal suppository 20mg; used for therapuetic abortion; trade name for dinoprostone Prostin E₂
prostaglandins; administration vaginal insert; used for cervical ripening; trade name for dinoprostone Cervidil
prostaglandins; administration intravaginal gel; used for cervical ripening; trade name for dinoprostone Prepidil
prostaglandins; administration tablets; used for pregnancy termination; trade name for misoprostol Cytotec
adrenergicsь; administration IV or PO dose varies; used for premature labor; trade name for terbutaline Brethine
treatment for preeclampsia/eclampsia; IM or IV dose varies; watch for respiratory complications magnesium sulfate
gonadotropic associated; administration nasal spray, dose varies; used for endometriosis (treatment not to exceed 6months); trade name for nafarelin acetate Synarel
gonadotropic associated; administration IM, dose varies; used for endometriosis, some cases infertility (treatment not to exceed 6months) & prostate cancer (antineoplastic); trade name for leuprolide acetate Lupron Depot
gonadotropic associated; administration PO, dose varies; used for infertility treatment, ovulation induction; trade name for clomiphene citrate Clomid, Seraphene
gonadotropic associated; administration IM daily for 7-12days; used for infertility treatment, stimulates follicle development; trade name for menotropins Repronex
gonadotropic associated; administration IM single dose, 5-10,000 units; used for infertility treatment, given 1 day after Repronex, to induce ovulation; trade name for chorionic gonadotropin (CG) Profasi, Pregnyl
gonadotropic associated; administration subQ, IM daily for 7-12 days; used for induction of ovulation in women w/polycystic ovaries followed w/injection of CG; trade name for urofollitropin Bravelle