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World: Final

World Cultures Final Exam Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Asif Ali Zardari The current president of Pakistan
Caste system A system of permanent social levels; used in Hindu India
Hamid Karzai The current president of Afghanistan
Henotheism The belief in many gods that represent aspects of one supreme being; Hinduism is an example of a henotheistic religion
Karma A positive or negative force that is the result of one's actions; this is a Hindu and Buddhist concept
Militarism The glorification of the military; the belief that a strong military is necessary for a country's security
Tribalism Placing the importance of one's tribe over the importance of one's nation
Buddha One who is awake; a person who has reached Enlightenment
Buddhism A religion which focuses on inner harmony and the individual's path to Enlightenment
Confucius The founder of Confucianism
Confucianism A religion which focuses on ethical behavior and harmony within the community
Four Noble Truths The basic beliefs of Buddhism; life is suffering, suffering is caused by desire, freedom from suffering is freedom from desire, this is achieved by following the Eightfold Path
Eightfold Path The things a Buddhist should practice to reach Enlightenment; right speech, right action, right mindfulness, right effort, right livelihood, right thought, right understanding, and right concentration
Lao Tzu The "Old Sage," the founder of Taoism
Nirvana The ultimate goal for Buddhists; becoming one with the universe after death
Reciprocity When both people or groups in a relationship are doing their expected duties and behaving ethically
Siddhartha The founder of Buddhism
Taoism A religion which focuses on an individual's connection to the universe around them, especially to the natural world
Three Jewels Compassion, moderation, humility; the virtues all Taoists should practice
Yin Yang The Taoist symbol for balance in opposites
Abraham The founder of Judaism and “father” of all monotheistic religions.
Sunnis The majority in Islam; they believe anyone who is capable may lead the Muslim people
Shi'a The minority in Islam, except in Iraq and Iran; they believe only a relative of Muhammad should lead the Muslim people
Bashar al-Assad The current president of Syria; one of the Arab Spring rebellions is against him
Muhammad The founder of Islam; an Arab merchant who received a series of revelations and began preaching them
Five Pillars The basic rules of Islam: declaring faith, prayer five times a day, charitable giving, fasting during Ramadan, and making the hajj
Monotheism The belief in one God
Extremism The distortion of beliefs in order to promote violence
Jihad A term that means "holy struggle" but is used by extremists to refer to holy war
Hamas A Palestinian extremist group that controls the Gaza Strip
Mujahideen Afghan rebels who fought the Soviets
Settlements Illegal Israeli communities built by extremists on Palestinian land
Durand Line The border between Afghanistan and Pakistan
Taliban An Islamic extremist group that ruled Afghanistan from 1996-2001
Samsara The cycle of birth, life, death, and reincarnation
Christianity The second oldest monotheistic religion; followers believe Jesus was the messiah
Arab Spring The series of protests and revolutions across North Africa and the Middle East
Bible The Christian holy book
Christianity The second oldest monotheistic religion; base don the teachings of Jesus
Church The Christian place of worship
Fatah A moderate, Palestinian political party led by Mahmoud Abbas; controls West Bank
Judaism The oldest monotheistic religion
Koran The Muslim holy book
Martyr Someone who dies for his or her beliefs
Messiah A Hebrew word for "One chosen by God"
Mosque The Muslim place of worship
Muhammad The founder of Islam
Prophet Someone who receives messages from God
Revelation A message a prophet receives
Synagogue The Jewish place of worship
Torah The Jewish holy book
Reincarnation Being born into another life on earth
Ahimsa The Hindu and Buddhist practice of non-violence towards all living things
Artha The Hindu goal related to material wealth
Brahma A Hindu god; the Creator
Vishnu A Hindu god; the Preserver
Shiva A Hindu god; the Destroyer
Sharia A form of Islamic law often distorted by extremists
Kama The Hindu goal relating to physical pleasure
Dharma The Hindu goal relating to one's righteous path or duty in life
Moksha The last Hindu goal; freedom from samsara
Insurgency A conflict in which multiple groups fight against a common enemy
Analects The book of Confucius' teachings
Enlightenment A state of perfect understanding of oneself and one's place in the universe
Tao "The Way." An energy force that connects all living things
Tao Te Ching The book of Taoist teachings
Pashtun The largest tribe in Afghanistan
Kashmir A territory claimed by both India and Pakistan
Khyber Pass The passage through the mountains between Afghanistan and Pakistan
Brahman The supreme being in Hinduism
Created by: missmurdough on 2010-06-07



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