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dia- through, across
epi- above, upon
endo- in, within
peri- around
exo- outside, outward
poly- many, much
cephal/o head
cervic/o cervix
cost/o ribs
crani/o cranium
lamin/o lamina
myel/o bone marrow, spinal cord
orth/o straight
oste/o bone
rachi/o spine
spondyl/ vertebrae
vertebr/o vertebrae
stern/o sternum
thorac/o chest
brachi/o arm
carp/o carpus
clavicul/o clavicle
dactyl/o fingers, toes
humer/o humerus
acromi/o acromion
metacarp/o metacarpus
phalang/o phanlanges
radi/o radiation, x-ray
uln/o ulna
hist/o tissue
calcane/o calcaneum
femor/o femur
fibul/o fibula
ili/o ilium
ischi/o ischium
lumb/o loins
patell/o patella
ped/i foot, child
pelv/i pelvis
pelv/o pelvis
pod/o foot
pub/o pelvis bone
tibi/o tibia
ankyl/o stiffness, bent, crooked
arthr/o joint
chondr/o cartilage
condyl/o condyle
synov/o synovial membrane
lei/o smooth
my/o muscle
rhabd/o rod-shaped
fasci/o band
fibr/o fiber
ten/o tendon
tend/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
adren/o adrenal gland
adrenal/o adrenal gland
calc/o calcium
gluc/o sugar, sweetness
glyc/o sugar, sweetness
gonad/o gonads, sex glands
home/o same, alike
kal/i potassium
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
thym/o thymus gland
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
toxic/o poison
articulation The place of union between two or more bones; a joint.
articular cartilage A type of hyaline connective tissue that covers the articulating surfaces of bones within synovial joints.
bursa A padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue. It reduces friction between tendon and bone, tendon and ligament, or between other structures where friction is likely to occur.
collagen A strong, fibrous, insoluble protein found in the connective tissue of tendons, ligaments, bone, artilage, and deep fascia.
collagenous fiber Any one of the tough, white, protein fibers that constitute much of the intercellular substance and the connective tissue of the body, including bones.
fontanel An ossified membrane or soft spot lying between the cranial bones of the skull of a fetus or infant.
hematopoiesis The production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow.
ligament A strong, flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bones, cartilage, and other structures to provide support or to attach fascia or muscles.
manubrium The upper segment of the sternum articulating with the clavicle and first pair of costal cartilage.
suture The line of union in an immovable articulation, such as those between the skull bones.
synovial joint A freely movable joint in the bony surfaces are covered by articular cartilage and connected by a fibrous, connective-tissue capsule that is line with synovial membrane.
tendon Band of dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
androgen Generic term for an agent, usually a hormone that stimulates activity of the accessory male sex organs or stimulates the development of male characteristics.
homeostasis A relative constancy or equilibrium in the internal environment of the body.
masculinization The normal development of secondary male sex characteristics that occurs during puberty.
metabolism The sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism; all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells.
prolactin A hormone produced by the pituitary gland.
testis, testes One of the paired male gonads or testicles.
virilism The presence or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman.
ankylosis The stiffening and immobility of a joint as the result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion.
arthritis (various types) Inflammation of a joint usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and frequently, changes in structure.
Ankylosing spondylitis A chronic, progressive arthritis that first affects the spine and adjacent structures.
Gouty arthritis caused by excessive uric acid in the body.
Osteoarthritis A progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by bone spurs (osteophytes) and destruction of articular cartilage.
Rheumatoid arthritis A chronic, systemic disease marked by inflammatory changes in joints and related structures that result in crippling deformities.
busitis Inflammation of a bursa, particularly those located between bony prominences and muscle or tendons, such as the shoulder, elbow, and knee.
bunion An abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe.
carpal tunnel syndrome A common, painful disorder produced by compression on the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist.
dislocation Displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint, causing loss of function in the joint.
subluxation A partial dislocation; it is common in the fingers, shoulders, knees, and hips.
fracture (various types) A break in the bone
complicated A fracture in which the broken bone injures an internal organ, such as a broken rib piercing the lung.
Compound (open) A fracture with an external wound in the skin.
Comminuted A fracture in which the bone is broken or splintered into pieces.
Impacted A fracture in which the bone is broken and one end is wedged into the interior of the other.
Incomplete A break in the bone in which the line of fracture does not include the whole bone.
Greenstick A fracture in which the bone is partially bent and partially broken; occurs in children.
pathological A fracture of a diseased or weakened bone produced by a force that would not have fractured a healthy bone.
Simple (closed) A fracture without and external wound.
ganglion A cyst that develops from the joint capsule or a tendon, usually in the wrist.
Lyme disease An acute, recurrent inflammatory infection transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick.
osteoporosis A disorder characterized by an abnormal loss of bone density.
Paget disease A skeletal disease of unknown cause usually affecting the middle-aged and elderly that is characterized by excessive bone destruction and unorganized bone repair.
talipes Any of several deformities of the foot that are usually congenital, where the foot is in a relatively fixed, twisted, abnormal position.
herniated disk A rupture of the fibrocartilage surrounding an intervertebral disk, releasing the nucleus pulposis into the vertebral canal.
kyphosis An abnormal curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as humpback or hunchback.
lordosis An abnormal, inward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly called swayback.
scoliosis An abnormal sideward curvature of the spine, either to the left or the right.
muscular dystrophy A group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of muscles without the involvement of the nervous system.
polymositis The chronic inflammation of a number of muscles simultaneously, usually accompanies by deformity, pain, edema, sweating, tension, and insomnia.
rhabdomyosarcoma A highly malignant tumor derived from primitive striated muscle cells that occurs most frequently in the head and neck.
sprain Traumatic injury to the tendons, muscles, or ligaments around a joint, characterized by pain, swelling, and discoloration of the skin over the joint.
strain Trauma to the muscles and/or tendons form excessive use.
acidosis Abnormal increase in hydrogen ion concentration of the blood sue to an accumulation of acid, as in diabetic acidosis or renal disease.
acromegaly Chronic metabolic disease of middle-aged and older persons. It is characterized by enlarged features, particularly of the face, hands, and extremities.
Addison disease A life-threatening condition caused by partial or complete failure of androcortical function, often resulting from autoimmune processes, infection, neoplasm, or hemorrhage in the gland.
aldosteronism A condition characterized by hypersecretion of aldosterone, occurring as a primary disease of the adrenal cortex, or more often, as a secondary disorder in response to various extra-adrenal pathological processes.
Cushing syndrome A metabolic disorder caused by the chronic and excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex or by the administration of glucocorticoids in large doses for several weeks or longer.
diabetes (various forms) A general term for disease marked by excessive urination.
Diabetes mellitus A chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that is primarily a result of a deficiency or complete lack of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas or of defects of the insulin receptors in cells.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, type 1 Disease that occurs mostly in children and adolescents and may be associated with a genetic predisposition to the disorder. It is characterized by destruction of beta cells of the islets of Landerhans with complete insulin deficiency in the body.
Non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus, type 2 Disorder that usually occurs later in life. Its risk factors include a family history of diabetes and obesity. Insulin cannot exert its effects on cells because of the body’s insensitivity to insulin.
dwarfism The condition of being abnormally small.
exophthalmos Protrusion of the eyeballs, often a sign of hyperthyroidism.
gigantism An abnormal condition characterized by excessive growth of the body.
goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland, possibly due to a lack of iodine in the diet, thyroiditis, inflammation from infection, tumors, or hyperfunction or hypofunction of the thyroid gland.
Graves disease Hyperthyroidism; characterized by goiter and exophthalmos that may be due to an autoimmune reaction to thyroid tissue.
hirsutism Condition characterized by the excessive growth of hair or presence of hair in unusual places, especially in women.
hypervolemia An abnormal increase in the amount of intravascular fluid, particularly in the volume of circulating blood.
hyponatremia A decreased concentration of sodium in the blood.
insulinoma Tumor of the islets of Langehans in the pancreas, resulting in overproduction of insulin.
ketosis The abnormal accumulation of ketons in the body as a result of excessive breakdown of fats caused by a deficiency or inadequate intake of carbohydrates.
ketoacidosis Acidosis accompanied by an accumulation of ketones in the body, resulting from extensive breakdown of fats due to faulty carbohydrate metabolism.
myxedema The most severe from of hypothyroidism.
obesity An abnormal increase in the proportion of fat cells, mainly in the viscera and subcutaneous tissues of the body.
pheochromocytoma A vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue, usually benign and usually located in the adrenal medulla.
bone scan The injection of radiopharmaceuticals to enable visualization of a bone using the image produced by the emission of radioactive particles.
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry An imaging technique to measure bone density for purposes of diagnosis and management of osteoporosis.
electromyography The process of recording the strength of the contraction of a muscle when it is stimulated by electrical current.
myelography Radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium into the spinal cord.
ESR (sed rate) Test to measure the rate at which RBCs settle to the bottom of a narrow tube.
rheumatoid factor Blood test to detect the presence of the rheumatoid factor.
calcium level Measures the amount of calcium in the blood.
creatine phosphokinase Blood test that measures the level of the enzyme creatine phosphokinase.
phosphorus level Test to measure the amount of phosphorous in the blood; useful in the diagnosis of bone disorders.
uric acid test Test to measure the amount of uric acid in the blood.
open reduction The treatment of bone fractures by a surgical procedure to place the bone(s) in proper alignment.
sequestrectomy Excision of a necrosed piece of bone.
closed reduction (various) The treatment of bone fractures by manipulating the bones into proper position without making an incision into the skin.
Casting The application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or other material to a limb or body part to immobilize it during healing.
Splinting The use of an orthopedic device to an injured body part for immobilization, stabilization, and protection during the healing process.
Traction The process of putting a bone, limb, or group of muscles under tension by means of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize the part, or to relieve pressure on it.
radioactive iodine uptake test Procedure that measures levels of radioactivity in the thyroid following administration of radioactive iodine either orally (PO) or intravenously (IV).
thyroid scan A radioactive substance is administered that is localized in the thyroid gland. The gland is then visualized with a scanning device to detect pathological formations such as tumors.
blood sugar test Test to measure the level of glucose in the blood.
electrolytes measurement Measurement of the levels of ions, such as sodium, potassium, CO2, and chloride in the blood.
fasting blood sugar Test to measure the level of glucose in the blood after a 12-hour fast.
glucose tolerance test A prescribed amount of glucose is administered either orally or intravenously, and blood samples are drawn and tested for glucose a specified intervals, usually for 3 to 6 hours.
ketone bodies Test to determine the presence of ketone bodies in blood or urine.
postprandial blood sugar Test designed to measure blood glucose level immediately after a meal or after a designated number of hours after a meal.
radioimmunoassay Method used to measure hormone levels in the blood by monitoring their ability to interfere with the binding of radioactive hormones to antibody molecules.
thyroid function tests Tests used to determine the levels of T3, T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood.
total calcium Measurement of the calcium concentration in the blood to detect bone and parathyroid disorders.
hormone replacement therapy Oral administration or injection of synthetic hormones to replace a hormone deficiency, such as of estrogen, testosterone, thyroid, and so forth.
hypophysectomy Excision of the pituitary gland.
lobectomy Excision of a lobe of an organ.
radioiodine therapy Use of radioactive iodine to treat diseases, such as by a destruction and renal of thyroid tumor cells.
corticosteroids Drugs that reduce the inflammation associated with arthritis, bursitis, and tendinitis.
gold salts Drugs that contain actual gold in capsules or in solution for injection.
minerals Over-the-counter calcium supplements are used to supplement the diet and increase calcium to prevent osteoporosis.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Agents that exert antipyretic and analgesic effects in addition to their anti-inflammatory effects.
skeletal muscle relaxants Agents that relieve muscle spasm and stiffness and are prescribed to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions such as strains, sprains, and “pulled muscles.”
anabolic steroids Substances that change the natural balance in the body between tissue building and tissue breakdown.
antidiabetics Oral antidiabetic drugs that stimulate the pancreas to produce and release insulin and to improve the action of insulin at its site of activity
antithyroids Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by inhibiting the production of T3 and T4 in the thyroid gland
growth hormone replacements Drugs used as a replacement therapy in patients with decreased levels or hyposecretion of growth hormones.
insulins A synthetic form of the insulin hormone, used by patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
thyroid supplements Supplements used in the treatment of hypothyroidism.
antidiuretics Agents that inhibit the excretion of water by the kidneys.
-asthenia weakness, debility
-esthesia feeling
-kinesia movement
-lalia speech, babble
-lepsy seizure
-paresis partial paralysis
-phasia speech
-plegia paralysis
-trophy development, nourishment
-mania state of mental disorder, frenzy
-philia attraction for
-phobia fear
-phoria feeling
-thymia mind, emotion
bi- two
contra- against
para- near, beside, beyond
quadri- four
uni- one
astr/o star
ax/o axis, axon
dendr/o tree
gangli/o ganglion
gli/o glue, neuroglia tissue
myel/o bone marrow, spinal cord
neur/o nerve
olig/o scanty
synapt/o synapsis, point of contact
cephal/o head
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebr/o cerebrum
cortic/o cortex
crani/o skull
dur/o dura matter
encephal/o brain
lex/o word, phrase
medull/o medulla
mening/o meninges
radicul/o nerve root
spin/o spine
thalam/o thalamus
thec/o sheath
ventricul/o ventricle
clon/o clonus
kinesi/o movement
narc/o stupor, numbness, sleep
tax/o order, coordination
ton/o tension
hallucin/o hallucination
hypn/o sleep
iatr/o physician, medicine, treatment
ment/o mind
neur/o nerve
phren/o diaphragm, mind
psych/o mind
schiz/o split
somat/o body
abscess A localized collection of blood that results form invasion of a pyogenic bacterium or other pathogens.
afferent nerves Nerves that carry impulses toward the brain and spinal cord from the muscles, glands, and organs.
autonomic nervous system Nerves that control involuntary body functions; these nerves automatically carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, glands, and internal organs.
axon Part of the nerve cell; a microscopic fiber that carries the nerve impulse along the nerve cell.
blood-brain barrier An anatomic-physiological feature of the brain tissue that prevents or slows the passage of some drugs and other chemical compounds and disease-causing organisms such as viruses from entering the central nervous system.
cell body Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
central nervous system One of the two main divisions of the nervous system, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord.
cerebrospinal fluid Liquid that circulates throughout the brain and the spinal cord; provided nutrients and protection.
dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nerve impulse.
dura mater A fibrous connective tissue membrane, the outermost of the meninges covering the spinal cord and brain.
efferent nerves Nerves that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, glands, and organs.
ganglion Collection of nerve bodies, chiefly collected in groups outside the CNS.
meninges The protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
nerve, nerve fibers Tissues outside the CNS that connect the brain and spinal cord with various parts of the body.
neuroglia One of two kinds of nerve cells; their primary function is to provide structural support to neurons.
neuron The functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of nerve cell body, dendrites, and an axon.
neurotransmitter A chemical messenger released across the synapse between cells in order to stimulate or inhibit an adjoining cell.
nervous tissue All the tissue of the CNS and peripheral nervous system that consists of neurons and specialized supporting cells.
peripheral nervous system Portion of the nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia that lie outside of the brain and spinal cord.
synapse The space or juncture between nerve cells, or between a nerve cell and another cell across which a nerve impulse is transmitted via neurotransmitters.
anxiety Fear or apprehension accompanied by physical symptoms such as tension, restlessness, tachycardia, tightness in the chest, and breathlessness.
compulsion Uncontrollable thought or impulse to person an act repeatedly.
defense mechanism Unconscious psychological mechanism used to control anxiety.
delirium An altered state of consciousness consisting of confusion, agitation, disorientation, memory problems, delusions, and/or hallucinations.
delusion A false belief or incorrect judgment that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence to the contrary.
depression Feelings of sadness, guilt, hopelessness, and worthlessness.
hallucinations False or unreal sensory perception of an object or event when no such stimulus is present.
mania Feelings of extreme euphoria or irritability, accompanied by rapid speech, decreased need for sleep, distractibility, and poor judgment.
neurosis A mental disorder in which anxiety is the primary characteristic.
obsession A recurrent and persistent thought or urge to do something.
psychosis A mental disorder causing gross distortion of reality or impairment of a person’s capacity to think and communicate.
hydrocephalus Increased accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain due to interference with normal circulation and absorption.
neural tube defect Any of a group of congenital malformations involving defects in the skill and spinal column that are primarily caused by failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development.
spina bifida (various) A congenital malformation characterized by a defective closure of the spinal canal through which the spinal cord and meninges may or may not protrude.
Spina bifida occulta The most common and least severe form of spina bifida.
Spina bifida cystica A more severe form of spina bifida in which a hernial cyst containing meninges, or both meninges and spinal cord protrude through a congenital opening in the vertebral column.
Tay-Sachs disease Genetic disorder resulting from an enzyme deficiency at birth.
Alzheimer disease Brain disorder of unknown etiology marked by gradual, progressive deterioration of mental capacity beginning in middle age.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis A fatal degenerative disease involving the cortical and spinal motor neurons and often the brain stem; manifested by progressive weakness and wasting of muscles.
epilepsy A group of neurologic disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures, sensory disturbances, abnormal behavior, loss of consciousness, or all of these.
Huntington disease An inherited disease of the CNS that usually occurs in persons 30-50 years of age.
multiple sclerosis A chronic disease of the CNS in which there is destruction of myelin and nerve axons within several regions of the brain and spinal cord at different times.
myasthenia gravis Neuromuscular autoimmune disorder characterized by extreme weakness of the skeletal muscles.
palsy Paralysis or paresis.
Bell palsy Paresis or paralysis, usually unilateral, of the facial muscles, caused by dysfunction of a facial nerve of unknown etiology.
Cerebral palsy Bilateral, symmetrical, nonprogressive motor dysfunction and partial paralysis usually caused by damage to the cerebrum during gestation or birth trauma but can be hereditary.
Parkinson disease Progressive neurological disorder affecting the area of the brain responsible for the control of movement, occurring in people over 60 years of age.
seizure A convulsion or other clinically detectable even caused by a sudden discharge of electrical activity in the brain that may be classified as partial or generalized.
Partial Seizures that being on one side of the cerebral cortex.
Generalized Seizures are characterized by involvement of both cerebral hemispheres.
Tourette syndrome Neurological disorder characterized by involuntary spasms, twitching movements, uncontrollable vocal sounds, and inappropriate verbalizations.
poliomyelitis Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
Reye syndrome A syndrome characterized by acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the liver and other internal organs.
shingles Eruption of acute, inflammatory vesicles in which painful blisters appear on the skin along the course of a peripheral nerve.
neuroblastoma A malignant hemorrhagic tumor composed primarily of cells resembling neuroblasts that give rise to cells of the sympathetic nervous system.
concussion An injury to the brain caused by a violent jarring or shaking, such as a blow or an explosion.
contusion Any mechanical injury resulting in hemorrhage beneath unbroken skin.
hematoma A swelling composed of a mass of extravasated blood confined to an organ, tissue, or space and caused by a break in a blood vessel.
Epidural hematoma A hematoma, usually from an arterial bleed, that forms between the skull and dura matter.
Subdural hematoma A hematoma, usually from a venous bleed, that forms between the dura matter and the brain.
sciatica Severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve felt at the back of the thigh and running down the inside of the leg.
aneurysm A localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel, usually an artery, due to a congenital defect or weakness in the vessel wall.
cerebrovascular accident A sudden loss of neurologic function, caused by vascular injury to the brain. Also called a stroke.
migraine A recurring, pulsating, vascular, and frequently incapacitating type of headache characterized by intense, throbbing pain often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
apraxia Inability to perform purposeful acts or to manipulate objects although there is no sensory or motor impairment.
aura Subjective sensation preceding a seizure or migraine.
coma Abnormally deep unconsciousness with the absence of voluntary response to stimuli.
Delirium State of mental confusion and excitement characterized by disorientation for time and place, often with hallucinations.
dementia A gradual, progressive, usually irreversible impairment of cognitive and intellectual function that interferes with normal social and occupational activities.
lethargy Condition of sluggishness, abnormal inactivity, or a lack of response to normal stimuli.
paraplegia Paralysis of lower portion of the body and both legs that may be due to maldevelopment, spinal abscess, tumor or injury, or multiple sclerosis.
pseudoseizure Clinical manifestation of what appears to be a seizure but EEG in normal.
quadriplegia Paralysis of all four extremities and usually the trunk due to an injury to the spinal cord, usually at the level of the cervical vertebrae.
Romberg sign Inability to maintain the body balance when the eyes are shut and feet are close together.
spastic An increase in muscle tone associated with an increase in tendon reflexes and abnormal reflexes.
syncope A transient loss of consciousness sue to inadequate blood flow to the brain; fainting.
tinnitus Noises in the ear, such as ringing, hissing, whistling, roaring.
tonic An involuntary, spasmodic muscular contraction most commonly involving the face, head, neck, shoulder muscles.
tremor Am involuntary quivering, shaking, or trembling.
vertigo The sensation of spinning or movement in which the world is revolving or the person is revolving in space, usually as a result of a disturbance of equilibrium in the inner ear.
agoraphobia An anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being alone, of leaving the familiar setting of home, or of being in open, crowded public places from which escape would be difficult or where help would be unavailable.
amnestic disorder, amnesia A cognitive disorder marked by a loss of long-term memory.
anhedonia Absence of please from acts that would ordinarily be pleasurable.
anorexia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by extreme fear of becoming obese and an aversion to food.
antisocial personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by little concern for others and no moral standards.
Asperger syndrome A pervasive developmental disorder marked by severe, enduring impairment in social skills, and restrictive and repetitive behaviors or interests causing impaired social and occupational functioning but without significant delays in language development.
attention deficit disorder A disorder usually diagnosed in childhood and characterized by decreased attention span, poor concentration, increased impulsivity, and hyperactivity manifested at home, school, and in social situations.
autistic disorder A pervasive development disorder characterized by a severe lack of response to other people.
bipolar disorder A moods disorder marked by the occurrence of alternating periods of mania and depression
body dysmorphic disorder A somatoform disorder characterized by a preoccupation with some imagined defect in appearance in a normal-looking person.
borderline personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by impulsivity and unpredictability, unstable interpersonal relationships, inappropriate or uncontrolled affect, etc.
bulimia nervosa An eating disorder involving repeated, secretive episode of binge eating followed by purging behavior to prevent weight gain.
catatonia Syndrome of psychomotor disturbance, characterized by periods of physical rigidity or stupor that may occur in schizophrenia, mood disorders, or organic mental disorders.
compulsion Uncontrollable thoughts or impulse to perform an act repeatedly.
conduct disorder A disorder of childhood or adolescents characterized by a persistent pattern of violating societal norms and the right of others.
conversion disorder A somatoform disorder in which an unconscious emotional conflict is expressed as an alteration of loss of physical functioning.
cyclothymia An affective disorder characterized by marked mood swings from depression to hypomania but not to the degree that occurs in bipolar disorder.
defense mechanisms Unconscious psychological mechanisms used to control anxiety.
delirium An altered state of consciousness characterized by confusion, distractibility, disorientation, disordered thinking and memory, and irrational behavior.
delirium tremens A severe and sometime fatal form of delirium caused by alcoholic withdrawal after a period of excessive alcohol intake over a long period of time.
dependent personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by an excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behaviors and fear of separation.
depersonalization disorder A dissociative disorder characterized by recurrent experiences of detachment form one’s mental thoughts or body but with intact reality testing.
dissociative amnesia A dissociative disorder marked by an inability to recall important personal information, usually of a stressful or traumatic nature.
dissociative fugue A dissociative disorder characterized by sudden, unexpected travel away from home or work with an inability to recall one’s past and personal identity.
dissociative identity A dissociative disorder characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personalities.
dysthymic disorder An affective disorder characterized by a chronic disturbance of mood such as mild depression or loss of interest in usual activities.
enuresis Childhood elimination disorder of repeated passage of urine in appropriate places for at least 3 months after the age of 5.
encopresis Childhood elimination disorder of repeated passage of feces in appropriate places for at least 3 months after the age of 4.
euphoria Elevated mood.
exhibitionism A paraphilia characterized by the compulsive need to expose a part of the body, especially the genitals, to an unsuspecting stranger.
female sexual arousal A sexual dysfunction marked by recurrent inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response to sexual excitement until the completion of sexual activity.
fetishism A paraphilia characterized by the act of using an inanimate object or nonsexual body part for sexual arousal and gratification.
frotteurism A paraphilia characterized by a compulsive need for, and attainment of, sexual gratification from touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person.
gender identity disorder Characterized by a strong, enduring cross-gender identification, belief, or desire to be the other sex.
hypochondriasis A somatoform disorder in which a person believes that he or she is suffering from a serious disease for which no physical basis exists.
hypomania A mild degree of mania.
histrionic personality disorder A personality disorder in which the person is emotional, attention-seeking, immature, dependent, and theatrical, and exhibits irrational outbursts and tantrums.
intermittent explosive disorder An impulse control disorder characterized by repeated acts of violent and aggressive behavior in an otherwise normal person.
kleptomania An impulse control disorder characterized by failure to resist impulses to steal even thought the items are not needed.
labile Emotionally unstable; exhibiting rapid shifts from one emotion to another.
major depressive disorder A mood disorder with chronic sadness, loss of energy, hopelessness, worry, and often, suicidal thoughts or impulse.
male erectile disorder A sexual dysfunction characterized by the recurrent inability to attain or maintain an adequate erection until the completion of the sexual activity.
mania A mood characterized by an unstable, expansive emotional state, extreme excitement, excessive elation, hyperactivity, inflated self-esteem, and agitation.
mental retardation A disorder usually diagnosed in childhood characterized by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning with deficits or impairments in adaptive functioning such a self-care, social and interpersonal skills, academic skills, and safety.
Munchausen syndrome A factitious disorder characterized by a form of child abuse inflicted by a caretaker with fabrications of symptoms and/or induction of signs of disease leading to unnecessary investigation and interventions.
narcissistic personality disorder A personality disorder marked by grandiose sense of self-importance or uniqueness and preoccupation with fantasies of success and power coupled with a lack of empathy for others.
obsessive-compulsive disorder A type of anxiety disorder with the essential feature of recurrent obsessions, persistent and intrusive ideas, thoughts, impulses, or compulsions that dominate behavior.
oppositional defiant disorder A disorder of childhood or adolescence marked by a recurrent pattern of hostile and disobedient behavior toward authority figures.
panic attack A period of intense fear and rapid development of accelerated heart rate, shaking, shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, dizziness.
Panic disorder An anxiety disorder marked by recurrent panic attacks accompanied by either worry about having additional attacks or a change in behavior related to the attacks.
paranoid personality disorder A personality disorder in which a person is continually suspicious and mistrustful of others to the degree of blaming others for his or her own mistakes and failures and goes to abnormal lengths to validate biases, prejudices, and attitudes.
paraphilia A sexual disorder characterized by recurrent intense sexual urge, fantasy, or behavior that involves unusual objects, activities, or situations.
pathological gambling An impulse-control disorder marked by recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or work pursuits.
pedophilia A paraphilia characterized by the sexual urges and fantasies of someone is at least 16 years old that involves sexual activity with a prepubescent child.
PTSD An anxiety disorder marked by the development of symptoms after exposure to an extreme traumatic, life-threatening event.
premature ejaculation A sexual dysfunction marked by recurrent onset of orgasm and ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation.
primary insomnia Sleep disorder marked by difficulty initiating sleep.
pyromania An impulse-control disorder characterized by multiple episodes of purposeful fire setting.
schizoaffective disorder A psychotic disorder characterized by a period of illness during which a person concurrently exhibits a mood disorder and the primary symptoms of schizophrenia.
schizoid personality disorder A personality marked by being emotionally cold and aloof, indifferent to praise, criticism, or the feelings of others, have few friendships, and rarely experiencing strong emotions.
schizophrenia A severe psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, flat affect, and impaired ability to initiate activities.
Catatonic schizophrenia Predominant features include marked psychomotor disturbance that may involve immobility, mutism, and stupor.
Disorganized type schizphrenia Predominant features include disorganized speech and behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect.
Paranoid type schizophrenia Predominant features include preoccupation with one or more delusions or hallucinations with little evidence of disorganized speech or behavior, or inappropriate affect.
SAD A depressive mood disorder that occurs approximately the same time year after year and spontaneously remits at the same time each year.
separation anxiety disorder Childhood disorder characterized by extreme fear concerning separation from home or from those to whom the child is attached.
sexual masochism A paraphilia characterized by the sexual gratification gained by being humiliated, beaten, bound, and made to suffer by another person.
sexual sadism A paraphilia characterized by the sexual gratification gained by inflicting physical or psychological pain or humiliation on another.
sleep terror disorder A sleep disorder characterized by repeated occurrence of abrupt awakenings from sleep with a panicky cry, intense fear, and unresponsiveness to efforts of others to provide comfort.
sleepwalking A sleep disorder marked by repeated episodes of complex motor behavior initiated during sleep, including rising from bed and walking.
social phobia An anxiety disorder marked by fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur.
specific phobia An anxiety disorder marked by persistent, excessive, unreasonable fear cued by the presence or anticipation of an object or situation.
transference In the situation of psychodynamic therapy, it is generally applied to the projection of feelings, thoughts, and wishes onto the therapist, who has come to symbolically represent an important person from the patient’s past.
transvestic fetishism A paraphilia characterized by sexually arousing fantasies or behaviors involving wearing clothes of the opposite sex.
trichotillomania A impulse-control disorder characterized by recurrent pulling out of one’s hair resulting in noticeable hair loss and accompanied by increasing tension before, and pleasure or relief after the act.
voyeurism A paraphilia characterized by the sexual excitement achieved by observing unsuspecting people who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity.
cerebral angiography Radiographic visualization of the vascular system of the brain.
CT of the brain Radiographic imaging modality that is more sensitive than a conventional x-ray examination.
MRI of the brain Radiographic imaging procedure that uses magnetic and radio waves to produce cross-sectional, frontal, and sagittal plane views of the brain.
PET A procedure used to evaluate metabolic and physiological function of the brain.
cerebrospinal fluid analysis Cerebrospinal fluid that is obtained from a lumbar puncture is evaluated for the presence of blood, bacteria, malignant cells, and the amount of protein and glucose present.
trephination Excision of a circular disk of bone, especially from the skull, using a specialized saw called a trephine.
nerve block Injection of local anesthetic along the course of a nerve or nerves to eliminate sensation to and from the area supplied by that nerve or nerves.
occupational therapy Therapeutic use of self-care, work, and recreational activities to increase independent functioning.
physical therapy Physical therapeutic measure to treat disability or pain and to restore functioning.
shunt placement In the case of hydrocephalus, surgical placement of a device used to divert excess CSF in the ventricles to another cavity, such as a peritoneal cavity.
stereotactic radiosurgery A technique that uses small amounts of radiation directed at an intracranial brain tumor from different angles.
EEG A graphic recording of the electrical activities of the brain.
lumbar puncture Insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column at the level of the forth intervertebral space to withdraw CSF for evaluation, to determine the pressure of the CSF, to withdraw excess CSF, or to administer intrathecal medications.
Created by: dmg