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public speaking 2

question of fact a question about the truth or falsity of an assertion
question of value a question about the worth, rightness, morality, merit of an idea or action
question of policy a question about whether or not a specific course of action should be taken
ethos credibility- establish self as believable and authoritative- based upon the audience's perceptions
competence audience's perceptions of the speaker's intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of the subject
character audience's perception of the speaker's sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience not stable
establishing ethos 1. explain competence 2. establish common ground 3. deliver speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction
pathos emotional appeal- appeal to the feelings and values of the audience
establishing pathos 1. use emotional language 2. develop vivid examples 3. speak with sincerity and conviction
logos logic- evidence-> reasoning/warrant-> claim
example/generalization one represents all are there counter-examples? are examples fit group? are there enough examples?
analogy the known=the unknown are they truly similar in relevant ways? similar enough? any major differences?
causal this causes that is this a sufficient cause? did the cause happen because of the effect?
sign observed indicates unobserved is there a more plausible alternative explanation? is x an unusual case? can this sign be found without y occurring?
deduction going from general to specific; reasoning from principle do you accept the general principle? is the characteristic possessed by all members of the class? is the person or thing genuinely a member of that class?
hasty generalization draw conclusions based on too few or atypical examples
false analogy compare things that are not alike in significant respects or that have critical points of difference
false cause assume that because two events are associated in time, one must have caused the other
single cause attributing only one cause to a complex problem
slippery slope assumes that a given event is the first in a series of steps that will inevitably lead to some outcome
ad hominem attack on the person rather than the argument
straw man argument create a weak argument, attribute it to the other side, then tear it apart
nonsequitur conclusion not related to the evidence
bandwagon everyone is doing it, therefore it is good
red herring divert attention from the subject by introducing an irrelevant issue
either/ or reasoning creates a false dichotomy
authorship is the author clearly identified? what are his/ her qualifications?
sponsorship who is the sponsoring organization for the website?
recency how old is the website?
numerical data are statistics representative? are statistical measures used correctly? are statistics from a reliable source?
statistics to quantify ideas use sparingly identify source explain round off use visual aids to illustrate
testimony quote or paraphrase accurately use from qualified source from unbiased sources identify the people you quote
problem solution outline the goal is to change an attitude. when your audience is unaware of the problem or how serious it is or is hostile or skeptical.
comparative advantages everyone agrees there is a problem, but there is a lack of agreement on the solution.
motivated sequence your audience agrees with you, but has not acted. want to mobilize your audience to take a specific action.
Created by: 518732976