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Hist.Ling. Semantics

Concepts in types of Semantic Change

Type of change:Def. Type of semantic change
(example of Metonomy) Span. Port. cadera, cadeira < ‘buttocks’ < (Lat.) cathedra
Traugott's Theory On 3 main components of Semantic Change: & Directionality of change: 1) (Propositional;= Literal meaning 'while' = during) 2) (Textual: =Connections to next discours, Concessive 'while') > 3) Expressive: speakers presentation of his/her opinion using expressive phrase 'I feel' )
Semantic Change Process: Stage 1: a 'A' . Stage 2: a 'A', 'B' (A >A, B). Stage 3: a 'B' (A, B > B)
Examples of Polysematic Stages of Semantic Change: Eng & Ger 1) Pto.Grmc. a= *tem-ram 2)Eng. a=timber,A= Building, B=building material. 3)A=timber, B='material for building' ('building' lost!)
Name the Commonality in Semantic Change processe... A transitionary stage of Polysemy. Synchronic Variation
3 emphasized emphasis of Semantic change: -Polysemy -Prototype model -Networks of Overlapping Meaning
Historical Factors Outside of Language that can contribute to Semantic Change: -Technology -Society (sociology, politics) -Religion....
Historical (non-Linguistic) Cause of Semantic Change (give example) 1) (Lat. 'penna' = feather) 2) Old.Fr.(>Eng) 'penne'= pen
Example of Semantic Changes as result of Historical circumstances: Spanish: 'león' = 'lion' (Spain) but 'cougar' (parts of Latin America)
(Traugott, Dasher, Sweester, Hopper, König)'s Principles (1&2): 1) Semantically Related Words often undergoe parallel Semantic Shifts...(eng.dial: 'lie/lay')
Traugott, Dasher, Sweester, Hopper, König)'s Principles (3&4): 2) Phonetic Similairity, especially homophones, can lead to thesimilar forms becomming semantically more similar.. 3) Spatial Terms may develop temporal sense.. 4) Some semantic changes often go in only 1 direction...
Examples of types of semantic shifts that typically go in one direction (Pt.1): words related to: Sense of Touch > Sense of Taste. ('sharp', 'hot', 'crisp')
Examples of types of semantic shifts that typically go in one direction (pt.2, pt3): 2)'Taste' words > 'Emotion' words 3) Obligation > Probability: "Deontic" >"Epistemic" meaning
Define "Deontic" vs "Epistemic" > "Deontic" = Requirement- Permission-Ability. >"Epistemic": 'speakers assesment', probability.
(Define) "Propositional" > "Textual" >"Propositional": describes context, concession, from temporal meaning. 'while'=during... >"Textual": specific temporal reference, 'at that time'
common "physical senses" based semantic shifts: 1)"see" > Comprehension 2) "hear" > Obey
Physical Action Verbs >Mental State name kind of semantic shift: 'grasp', 'get' 'feel', 'apture' Romance; pensare <pesare (Latin) 'to weigh'
Traugott's broad explanations of Tendancies in Senatic change: (1 of 3) 1) meanings based on: External Situation >Internal situation (Evaluative/ Perceptual/Cognitive)-Degeneration, Elevation
Traugott's broad explanations of Tendancies in Senatic change: (2 of 3) Meanings based on External, or internal situations > Meanings based on Textual, or Meta linguistic situations. (While >concessive), (Physical Action Verbs >Mental State Verbs) (Mental State Verbs > Speech Act Verbs)
Examples of Semantic Shift changing meaning from more concrete, to more abstract: -Body parts becoming terms for more abstract meanings; Capitum (head) >Capital, Capo di (something), Cape (geographical), Captain, Caption....
Traugott & Dasher "Invited Inferencing Theory of Semantic Change" >Polysemy Central, & arises from: a) 'Invited Inferences': b) 'Subjectification': speakers develope meaning that 'Externalizes' perspectives and additudes.
(from Invited Inferencing Theory of Semantic Change) Invited Inferences are: (Name type of Semantic use/change) -Arise in the pragmetic use of lang in given context. ex; 'as long as' 'so long as'... were origionally only spatial terms. >Conditional term, Concessive. (now exist in Polysemy, but in some contexts> only conditional )
(From Invited Inferencing theory of Semantic change) Examples of 'Subjectification': (name force: & Theory) Speaker comes to develope meanings for words that externalize perspectives and additudes as constrained by the world of Speech Event, instead of real world. ex: 'indeed' in + deed (in action) >(certainly). ex; "I'm sure that..."
(From Invited Inferencing theory of Semantic change) Examples of 'Invited Inference': (Name force: & Theory) Speakers make pragmetic use of language in given context. ex: 'as long as' (Spatial) > (Temporal).
Widening (Generalization, Extension, Broadening) Range of meanings for a word increases, to include additional, more broad concepts. Word becomes less specific.
Metonomy: Slight shift in meaning to mean something that is closely related, but not exactly