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US Corrections

Vocabulary from Ch 15 of Criminal Justice

Corrections Agencies of justice that take control of offenders following thier conviction
Prisons State or federal connrections institution for incarceration of felons for one year or more
Jails Place to detain people awaiting trial, drunks, and other disorderly individualsor misdemeanants for less than one year
Hulks Old ships used to house prisoners in eighteenth century England
John Howard Eighteenth century Brit who wrote The State of Prisons
Walnut Street Jail A wing of this jail became a prison because of pressures from the Quakers on the Pennsylvania State Legislature
Penitentiary House Prisoner quarters in the Walnut Street Jail that had solitart cells
Tier System Cells built vertically on five floors under the Auburn System
Congregate System Prisoners eat and work in groups
Auburn System In nineteenth century New York, stressed congregate working conditions
Pennsylvania System Nineteenth century system that stressed total isolation
Contract System Used in early twentieth century, prisoners were leased out for private work
Convict-Lease System State leased out inmates to a business for a fixed annual fee and gave up supervision and control
Property in Service Control of prisoner is transferred to the contractor or shipmaster for the remainder of their sentance
Ticket of Leave Conditional release where former prisoners are let out in specified areas, and conditions of release are written in a license they are required to carry at all times
Mark System Inmates earn thier ticket of leave by good behavior and hard work
Summers-Ashurst Act 1940 act making it illegal to transport in interstate commerce goods made in prison for private use
Prisoners' Rights Movement Many cases ruled that inmates had rights to freedom of religion and speech, medical care, procedural due process, and proper living conditions
Medical Model Idea that inmates are "sick people" who are suffering from some social malady preventing them from adjusting to society
Maximum Security Prisons House dangerous felons with strict security measures and allowing limited contact with the outside world
Medium Security Prisons House nonviolent offedners and provide more opportunity for contact with the outside world
Minimum Security Prisons House white-collar and nonviolent offenders and allow liberal furloughs and visitation
Shock Incarceration Short prison sentance serverd in a boot-camp
Boot Camps Short term militaristic corrections facility involving intensive physical conditioning and discipline
Community Corrections State and federal correctional systems for an alternative to closed institutions
Halfway Houses Community-based correctional facility that houses inmates before outright release into the community to allow for acclimation into conventional society
Created by: fran0715