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Math Review Gr. 6-8

Area The measure (usually in square units) of the interior region of a two-dimensional figure
Center of Rotation A fixed point around which a geometric figure is rotated or turned.
Circumference The distance around a circle
Circumference Formula: 2 π r or π d
Coefficient A numerical factor in a term containing variables
Coefficient 3xy2 : 2 is an exponent; x and y are variables, 3 is a ______________________
Common factor An integer that is a factor of two or more numbers
Complementary angles Any two angles such that the sum of their measures equals 90 degrees.
Composite number Any whole number with more than two factors
Cone A three-dimensional figure that consists of a circular face (the base), a point not in the plane of the base (the vertex), and a lateral surface that connects the vertex to each point on the boundary of the base
Congruent figures Two or more geometric figures that have the same size and shape
Decagon A polygon with 10 sides
Diagonal A line segment between non-consecutive vertices in a polygon
Diameter A cord that contains the center of a circle
Equilateral triangle A triangle with three congruent sides and three congruent angles;each angle measures 60º
Equivalent Equal in value
Formula An equation that shows the relationship between two or more quantities
Greatest Common Factor The greatest number that is a factor of two or more numbers
Heptagon A polygon with 7 sides
Hexagon A polygon with 6 sides
Hypotenuse In any right triangle, the side opposite the right angle
Inequality A mathematical sentence that compares two expressions that may or may not be equivalent; uses one of these symbols ≠, ≤, ≥, <, >
Integer The set of whole numbers and their opposites{… -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 …}
Irrational Number A number that cannot be written as the ratio of two integers; when written as a decimal, the digits neither terminate nor repeat
isosceles triangle A triangle with at least two congruent sides
Least Common Multiple The smallest non-zero number that is a multiple of two or more numbers
Mean A measure of central tendency which is affected by all data points (with the possible exception of outliers); calculated by finding the sum of the data values and dividing by the number of data points
Median A measure of central tendency that occupies the middle position of a data set in ranked order
Mode A measure of central tendency that is the most frequently occurring value
Measures of Central Tendency Descriptive statistics that describe the center of the data set;mean, median and mode
Nonagon A polygon with 9 sides
Natural Numbers The counting numbers; the positive whole numbers; a positive integer
Octagon A polygon with 8 sides
Odd Integer Any integer that, when divided by 2, does not have an integer as the quotient
Ordered pair A pair of numbers used to locate a point in a coordinate plane; the pair is written in the form (x-coordinate, y-coordinate)
Origin In a coordinate plane, the point at the intersection of the x- and y-axes;the point (0, 0)
Outcome In a probability experiment, the result of an event
Outlier Any value in a set of data that is notably farther from the mean than the other data
Parallelogram Any quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel
Pentagon A polygon with five sides
Percent Per one hundred; a special ratio in which the denominatoris always 100
Perfect Square Any natural number that can be expressed as a natural number multiplied by itself such as 25 = 5 x 5
Perimeter The distance around a geometric figure
Perpendicular Lines Two lines that intersect to form right angles
Pi The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter; approximately 227; decimal approximation 3.14
Polygon A simple, closed, plane figure with three or more sides that are line segments
Polyhedron A three-dimensional geometric figure with polygonal faces
Prime Number A natural number with exactly two factors (itself and one)
Proportion A statement of equality between ratios
Pyramid A polyhedron with a polygonal base, triangular faces and a vertex
Pythagorean Theorem A theorem defining the relationship between the lengths of the three sides of a right triangle;a2 + b2 = c2 where a and b are the lengths of the legs of the right triangle and c is the length of the hypotenuse
Quadrilateral A polygon with four sides
Ratio A comparison of any two quantities; may be expressed as a : b or a to b or ab
Rational Numbers The set of numbers that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers
Reflection A transformation in which all points under than transformation are mirrored over a line
Rhombus A parallelogram with four congruent sides
Sample Space The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment
Scientific Notation A standardized way of writing real numbersin the form a x (10 to a certain power)
Similar Having the same shape but not necessarily the same size
Set A group of numbers, variables, geometric figures or anything else
Supplementary Angles Two angles with measures adding to 180º
Surface Area The total area of the exterior of a three-Dimensional geometric figure; the lateral area added to the area of the base
Terms Parts of an expression separated by + or - signs
Theoretical Probability The ratio of the number of expected outcomes
Transformation Operations that alter the location or form of a figure
Translation A transformation in which a geometric figure Is moved to another location without changing its size (isometry) or orientation
Trapezoid A quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides
Variable A symbolic representation used to denote a quantity or expression; in mathematics, an “unknown” quantity that has the potential to change
Vertical Angles Angles formed by intersecting lines.These angles have a common vertex and are congruent.
Volume The total amount of space inside a three-dimensional object
Whole numbers Non-negative integers
Created by: itrtatlcms