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APHG Population

APHG Unit 2 Population Barrons & Rubenstein

WordsDefinitions
Age-sex distribution A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid.
Baby boom A cohort of individuals born in the U.S. between 1946&1964,which was just after WW II in a time of relative peace and prosperity.These conditions allowed for better education & job opportuni¬ties, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Baby bust a). Period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the U.S dropped as large numbers of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competitive jobs, caus¬ing them to marry later in life.
Baby bust Continued b). As such, the fertility rate dropped considerably, in contrast to the baby boom, in which fertility rates were quite high.
Carrying capacity The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support.
Chain migration The migration event in which individuals follow the migra¬tory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community.
Cohort A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
Cotton Belt The term by which the American South used to be known, as cotton historically dominated the agricultural economy of the region.
Crude birth rate The number of live births per year per 1,000 people.
Crude death rate The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
Demographic accounting equation An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a partic-ular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration.
Demographic transition model Demographic transition model A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
Demography The study of human populations, including their temporal and spatial dynamics.
Dependency ratio The ratio of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor. This is usually expressed in the form n : 100, where n equals the number of dependents.
Doubling time Time period required for a population experiencing exponen¬tial growth to double in size completely.
Emigration The process of moving out of a particular country, usually the individual person's country of origin.
Exponential growth Growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new people is added to a population each year. Exponential growth is compound because the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-increasing population.
Forced migration The migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will.
Generation X A term coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland to describe people born in the United States between the years of 1965 and 1980. This post-baby-boom generation will have to support the baby-boom cohort as they head into their retirement years.
Immigration The process of individuals moving into a new country with the intentions of remaining there.
Infant mortality rate The percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.
Internal migration The permanent or semipermanent movement of individ-uals within a particular country.
Life expectancy The average age individuals are expected to live, which varies across space, between genders, and even between races.
Thomas Malthus Author of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would outpace food production.
Migration A long-term move of a person from one political jurisdiction to another.
Natural increase rate The difference between the number of births and num¬ber of deaths within a particular country.
Neo-Malthusian Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations.
Overpopulation A value judgment based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support that area's current population.
Population density A measurement of the number of persons per unit land area.
Population geography A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
Population pyramid A model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.
Pull factors Attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as a pleas¬ant climate and employment or educational opportunities.
Push factors Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil.
Refugees People who leave their home because they are forced out, but not because they are being officially relocated or enslaved.
Rust Belt a). The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity.
Rust Belt continued b). In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
Sun Belt U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.
Total fertility rate The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.
Voluntary migration Movement of an individual who consciously and vol-untarily decides to locate to a new area-the opposite of forced migration.
Zero population growth Proposal to end population growth through a vari¬ety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs.
Agricultural density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural revolution The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Arithmetic density The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Census A complete enumeration of a population.
Crude birth rate (CBR) The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude death rate (CDR) The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Demographic transition The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Demography The scientific study of population characteristics.
Dependency ratio The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Doubling time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Epidemiological transition Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Ecumene The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant mortality rate (IMR) The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Life expectancy The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Medical revolution (Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.) revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa.
Natural increase rate (NIR) The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Overpopulation The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Pandemic Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Physiological density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population pyramid A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Sex ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Total fertility rate (TFR) The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Zero population growth (ZPG) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Brain drain Large-scale emigration by talented people. Branch (of a religion) A large and fundamental division within a religion.
Chain migration Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Circulation Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
Counterurbanization Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Emigration Migration from a location.
Floodplain The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.
Forced migration Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
Guest workers Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
Immigration Migration to a new location.
Internal migration Permanent movement within a particular country.
International migration Permanent movement from one country to another.
Interregional migration Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Intervening obstacle An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
Intraregional migration Permanent movement within one region of a country.
Migration Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Migration transition Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Mobility All types of movement from one location to another.
Net migration The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
Pull factors Factors that induce people to move to a new location.
Push factors Factors that induce people to leave old residences.
Quota In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
Refugees People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Undocumented immigrants People who enter a country without proper documents.
Voluntary migration Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
Created by: Chenchen on 2010-04-21



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